A. Vanishing of elastic fibers



B. Vascularization

C. Muscle layer atrophy

D. Vanishing of collagen fibers

E. Intima changes by shagreen leather type

A 38-year-old male patient has been ill with systemic lupus erythematosus for three years. He was diagnosed with diffuse renal affection accompanied by massive edemata and expressive proteinuria. What is the most likely cause of proteinuria development?

A. Aseptic renal affection

B. Urinary bladder inflammation

C. Urinary tracts inflammation

D. Autoimmune renal affection

E. Ischemic renal affection

A newborn develops dyspepsia after the milk feeding. When the milk is substituted by the glucose solution the dyspepsia symptoms disappear. The newborn has the subnormal activity of the following enzyme:

A. Amylase

B. Maltase

C. Invertase

D. Isomaltase

E. Lactase

A female patient consulted a doctor about pain and limited movements in the knee joints. Which of the following nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs should be administered taking into consideration that the patient has a history of chronic gastroduodenitis?

A. Butadiounum

B. Diclofenac sodium

C. Celecoxib

D. Promedol

E. Acetylsalicilic acid

An animal has an increased tonus of extensor muscles. This the result of intensified information transmission to the motoneurons of the spinal cord through the following descending pathways:

A. Rubrospinal

B. Reticulospinal

C. Lateral corticospinal

D. Medial corticospinal

E. Vestibulospinal

One of the parents is suspected of having phenylketonuria recessive gene. What is the risk of giving birth to a child with inborn phenylketonuria?

A. 75%

B. 100%

C. 0%

D. 25%

E. 50%

A patient with coronary disease has been diagnosed with myocardial hypertrophy, tachycardia and a decrease in minute blood volume. What is the leading mechanism of cardiac hystiocyte damage in this case?

A. Increase in a and b adrenoreceptors quantity

B. Mg2+ loss by cardiac hystiocytes

C. Damage of specific membrane pumps

D. Cardiac hystiocyte dehydration

E. Ca2+ loss by cardiac hystiocytes

Autopsy of a patient who suffered from croupous pneumonia and died from pneumococcal sepsis revealed 900 ml of turbid greenish-yellow liquid in the right pleural cavity. Pleural leaves are dull, plephoric. Name the clinicopathological form of inflammation in the pleural cavity:

A. Acute abscess

B. Empyema

C. Chronic abscess

D. Fibrinous inflammation

E. Phlegmon

A patient with myocardial infarction was admitted to the cardiological department. For pain relief it was decided to potentiate fentanyl action with a neuroleptic. Which of the following neuroleptics is the most suitable for neuroleptanalgesia?

A. Sulpiride

B. Haloperidol

C. Droperidol

D. Aminazine

E. Triftazine

A 46-year-old female patient has a continuous history of progressive muscular (Duchenne's) dystrophy. Which blood enzyme changes will be of diagnostic value in this case?

A. Pyruvate dehydrogenase

B. Lactate dehydrogenase

C. Creatine phosphokinase

D. Glutamate dehydrogenase

E. Adenylate cyclase

Days after labour a woman developed shock along with DIC syndrome that caused her death. Autopsy revealed purulent endomyometritis, regional purulent lymphangitis, lymphadenitis and purulent thrombophlebitis. There were also dystrophic alterations and interstitial inflammation of parenchymal organs. What is the most likely diagnosis?

A. Hydatid mole

B. Syphilis

C. Septicemia

D. Chorioadenoma destruens

E. Tuberculosis of genital organs

Electronic microphotography of pulmonary alveole's wall presents a big cell. Its cytoplasm has a lot of mitochondria, developed Golgi apparatus, osmiophil lamellated corpuscles. What is the main function of this cell?

A. It is a component of blood-air barrier

B. It warms the air

C. It produces surfactant

D. It absorbs microorganisms

E. It purifies the air

A 12-year-old teenager has significantly put off weight within 3 months; glucose concentration rose up to 50 millimole/l. He fell into a coma. What is the main mechanism of its development?

A. Hypoglycemic

B. Ketonemic

C. Hypoxic

D. Lactacidemic

E. Hyperosmolar


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