During starvation muscle proteins break up into free amino acids. These compounds will be the most probably involved into the following process:



A. Synthesis of higher fatty acids

B. Glycogenolysis

C. Decarboxylation

D. Gluconeogenesis in liver

E. Gluconeogenesis in muscles

The greater amount of nitrogen is excreted from the organism in form of urea. Inhibition of urea synthesis and accumulation of ammonia in blood and tissues are induced by the decreased activity of the following liver enzyme:

A. Urease

B. Aspartate aminotransferase

C. Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase

D. Pepsin

E. Amylase

A patient presents with icteritiousness of skin, scleras and mucous membranes. Blood plasma the total bilirubin is increased, stercobilin is increased in feces, urobilin is increased in urine. What type of jaundice is it?

A. Obturational

B. Cholestatic

C. Gilbert's disease

D. Haemolytic

E. Parenchymatous

A patient with high-titer antinuclear antibodies died from progressing renal impairment. Autopsy revealed mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis and abacterial polypous endocarditis. There was periarterial bulbar sclerosis in spleen and productive proliferative vasculitis in skin. What is the most likely diagnosis?

A. Rheumatism

B. Periarteritis nodosa

C. Dermatomyositis

D. Systemic lupus erythematosus

E. Nephrotic syndrome

An electron microphotography of a fragment of proper gastric gland shows a big irregular round-shaped cell. There are a lot of intracellular tubules and mitochondria in the cytoplasm. Specify this cell:

A. Mucous cell

B. Endocrine cell

C. Parietal cell

D. Undifferentiated cell

E. Principal cell

Which muscle contraction will be observed in the upper extremity during holding (but not moving) a load in a certain position?

A. Auxotonic

B. Isometric

C. Excentric

D. Isotonic

E. Concentric

Sex chromosomes of a woman didn't separate and move to the opposite poles of a cell during gametogenesis (meiosis). The ovum was impregnated with a normal spermatozoon. Which chromosomal disease can be found in her child?

A. Turner's syndrome

B. Cat cry syndrome

C. Edwards' syndrome

D. Down's syndrome

E. Patau's syndrome

Life cycle of a cell includes the process of DNA autoreduplication. As a result of it monochromatid chromosomes turn into bichromatid ones. What period of cell cycle does this phenomenon fall into?

A. M

B. G1

C. G2

D. Go

E. S

A 36-year-old female patient has a history of collagen disease. Urine analysis is likely to reveal an increased concentration of the following metabolite:

A. Urea

B. Indican

C. Creatinine

D. Oxyproline

E. Urobilinogen

The patient with complaints of permanent thirst applied to the doctor. Hyperglycemia, polyuria and increased concentration of 17-ketosteroids in the urine were revealed. What disease is the most likely?

A. Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

B. Myxoedema

C. Steroid diabetes

D. Addison's disease

E. Type I glycogenosis

A patient suffering from chronic hyperacidic gastritis takes an antacid drug for heartburn elimination. After its ingestion the patient feels better but at the same time he has a sensation of stomach swelling. Which of the following drugs might be the cause of such side effect?

A. Magnesium trisilicate

B. Magnesium oxide

C. Aluminium hydrooxide

D. Sodium hydrocarbonate

E. Pepsin

A patient presents with acne and inflammatory alterations of facial skin. Microscopial investigation of lesion foci has revealed live arthropods sized 0,2-0,5 mm. They have prolate vermiform form and four pairs of thin short limbs located in the middle part of the body. The revealed arthropods cause:

A. Pediculosis

B. Dermamyiasis

C. Demodicosis

D. Scabies

E. Phthiriasis

While examining the oral cavity a stomatologist revealed inflammation of papillae on the border of the median and posterior third of the back of tongue. What papillae are inflamed?

A. Papillae vallatae

B. Papillae foliatae

C. Papillae filiformes

D. Papillae conicae

E. Papillae fungiformes

Acute renal impairment caused death of a bleeding patient. Autopsy revealed enlarged kidneys with a broad pale pink cortical layer expressively demarcated from dark red renal pyramids. Macroscopic examination revealed lack of epithelial nuclei of convoluted tubules, tubulorrhexis, phlebostasis. The cell nuclei of choroid glomus and straight tubules were present. What pathology is it?

A. Pyelonephritis

B. Nephrosis

C. Infarction

D. Glomerulonephritis

E. Necronephrosis

A concentrated solution of sodium chloride was intravenously injected to an animal. This caused decreased reabsorption of sodium ions in the renal tubules. It is the result of the following changes of hormonal secretion:


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