A. Substrate-linked phosphorylation

B. Transport of fatty acids to mitochondria

C. Utilization of lactic acid

D. Oxidative phosphorylation

E. Regulation of Ca2+ rate in mitochondria


During anesthetization a patient presented with symptoms of tonus increase of parasympathetic nervous system such as hypersalivation and laryngospasm. What drug could have prevented these undesirable effects?

A. Pyracetam

B. Neostigmine

C. Atropine sulphate

D. Adrenaline hydrochloride

E. Analgin

After inoculation of the material obtained from the pharynx of an angina patient onto the blood-tellurite agar, grey colonies could be observed. They were 4-5 mm in diameter, radially striated (in form of rosettes). Microscopical examination revealed gram-positive bacilli with clavate swollen ends arranged in form of wide-spread fingers. Identify these microorganisms:

A. Clostridium botulinum

B. Streptococci

C. Diphtheroids

D. Diphtheria corynebacteria

E. Streptobacilli

 35 A 19-year-old female patient has had low haemoglobin rate of 90-95 g/l since childhood. Blood count results obtained after hospitalisation are as follows: erythrocytes - 3,2*1012/l, Hb- 85 g/l, colour index - 0,78; leukocytes - 5,6*109/l, platelets – 210*109/l. Smear examination revealed anisocytosis, poikilocytosis and target cells. Reticulocyte rate is 6%. Iron therapy was ineffectiv e . What blood pathology corresponds with the described clinical presentations?

A. Membranopathy

B. Favism

C. Sickle-cell anemia

D. Enzymopathy

E. Thalassemia

Autopsy of a man with a malignant stomach tumour who had died from cancer intoxication revealed in the posteroinferior lung fields some dense, grayish-red irregular foci protruding above the section surface. Microscopic examination revealed exudate containing a large amount of neutrophils in the lumen and walls of small bronchi and alveoles. Such pulmonary alterations indicate the following disease:

A. Acute serous bronchopneumonia

B. Acute purulent bronchopneumonia

C. Croupous pneumonia

D. Intermittent pneumonia

E. Acute bronchitis

It was revealed that T-lymphocytes were affected by HIV. Virus enzyme - reverse transcriptase (RNA-dependent DNA-polymerase) - catalyzes the synthesis of:

A. DNA on the matrix of virus mRNA

B. Virus informational RNA on the matrix of DNA

C. DNA on virus ribosomal RNA

D. Viral DNA on DNA matrix

E. mRNA on the matrix of virus protein

An injured person was delivered to the hospital with a penetrating wound in the left lateral region of abdomen. What part of the large intestine is most likely damaged?

A. Colon transverses

B. Rectum

C. Caecum

D. Colon ascendens

E. Colon descendens

A surgeon has to find the common hepatic duct during the operative intervention on account of concrements in the gall ducts. The common hepatic duct is located between the leaves of:

A. Hepatorenal ligament

B. Venous ligament

C. Hepatogastric ligament

D. Hepatoduodenal ligament

E. Round ligament of liver

In order to determine toxigenicity of diphtheria bacilli a strip of filter paper impregnated with antitoxic diphtherial serum was put on the dense nutrient medium. There were also inoculated a microbal culture under examination and a strain that is known to be toxigenic. If the microbal culture under examination produces exotoxin, this wil result in formation of:

A. Zones of lecithovitellinous activity

B. Haemolysis zones

C. Zones of diffuse opacification

D. Precipitin ring

E. Precipitin lines

Pyeloureterography X-ray photo showed a renal pelvis with minor calyces only (major calyces were absent). What form of urinary tracts of a kidney was revealed?

A. Embryonal

B. -

C. Ampullar

D. Fetal

E. Mature

A 35-year-old man developed acute heart failure while running for a long time. What changes in ionic composition can be observed in the cardiac muscle?

A. Accumulation of Na+ and Ca2+ ions in the myocardium cells

B. Reduction of Na+ and Ca2+ ions in the myocardium cells

C. Reduction of K+ and Mg2+ ions in the extracellular space

D. Accumulation of K+ and Mg2+ ions in the myocardium cells

E. Reduction of Na+ and Ca2+ ions in the extracellular space

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