The gluconeogenesis is activated in the liver after intensive physical trainings .What substance is utilized in gluconeogenesis first of all in this case:

A. Glucose

B. Glutamate

C. Alanine

D. Lactate

E. Pyruvate

A 45-year-old man with domestic apper arm injuiry came to the trauma unit. The objective data are: there are no extension, adduction or pronation functions of the arm. What muscle damage caused this condition?

A. Subspinous

B. Teres major

C. Subscapular

D. Supraspinous

E. Teres minor

An autopsy has revealed that kidneys are enlarged, surface is large-granular because of multiple cavities with smooth wall, which are filled with clear fluid. What kidney disease did the patient have?

A. Infarction

B. Glomerulonephritis

C. Polycystic kidney

D. Pyelonephritis

E. Necrotic nephrosis

A 42-year-old man who has been injured in a car accident is brought into the emergency room. His blood alcohol level on admission is 250 mg/dL. Hospital records show a prior hospitalization for alcohol related seizures. His wife confirms that he has been drinking heavily for 3 weeks. What treatment should be provided to the patient if he goes into withdrawal?

A. Phenytoin

B. Pentobarbital

C. None

D. Phenobarbital

E. Diazepam

The pulmonalis embolism has suddenly developed in a 40 year-old patient with opened fracture of the hip. Choose the possible kind of embolism.

A. Fat

B. Air

C. Thrombus-embolus

D. Tissue

E. Foreign body

A patient in three weeks after acute myocardial infarction has pain in the heart and joints and pneumonia. What is the main mechanism of development of post-infarction Dressler’s syndrome?

A. Autoimmune inflammation

B. Vessels ' thrombosis

C. Secondary infection

D. Ischemia of myocardium

E. Resorption of enzymes from necrotized area of myocardium

 134 In the blood of a 26-year-old man 18\% of erythrocytes of the spherical, ball-shaped, flat and thorn-like shape have been revealed. Other eritrocytes were in the form of the concavo-concave disks. How is this phenomenon called?

A. Physiological poikilocytosis

B. Erytrocytosis

C. Pathological poikilocytosis

D. Physiological anisocytosis

E. Pathological anisocytosis

A 50-year-old male farm worker has been brought to the emergency room. He was found confused in the orchard and since then has remained unconscious. His heart rate is 45 and his blood pressure is 80/40 mm Hg. He is sweating and salivating profusely. Which of the following should be prescribed?

A. Atropine

B. Proserine

C. Physostigmine

D. Norepinephrine

E. Pentamine

A 19 year-old patient was diagnosed with appendicitis and was hospitalized. The surgical operation on ablating appendix vermiformis is to be performed. What artery must be fixed to stop bleeding during the surgical operation?

A. The colica dextra

B. The iliac

C. The colica media

D. The colica sinistra

E. The ileocolic artery

A patient died from acute cardiac insufficiency. The histological examination of his heart revealed the necrotized section in myocardium of the left ventricle, which was separated from undamaged tissue by the zone of hyperimic vessels, small hemorrhages and leukocytic infiltration. What is the most likely diagnosis?

A. Myocardial ischemic dystrophy

B. Myocardial infarction

C. Focal exudate myocarditis

D. Productive myocarditis

E. Diffuse exudate myocarditis

 138 During the experiment on the influence of chemical substances in the muscles the reaction of Ca2+-pump is weakened. Which phenomenum will be observed?

A. Decreased velocity of the AP distribution

B. Activation of the sodium-potassium pump

C. Prolonged relaxation

D. Decreased AP

E. Prolonged duration of the AP

A worker has decreased buffer capacity of blood due to exhausting muscular work The influx of what acid substance in the blood can cause this symptom?

A. 3-phosphoglycerate

B. 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate

C. Lactate

D. α-ketoglutarate

E. Pyruvate

On autopsy a 35-year-old man the focus of carnification 5 cm in diametre enclosed in a thin capsule was revealed in the second segment of the right lung . The focus consists of a tough dry friable tissue with a dim surface. For what disease are these morphological changes typical?

A. Postinflammatory pneumosclerosis

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