Vocabulary and grammar acquisition
Read the words paying attention to the pronunciation of the bold-typed letters. Consult a dictionary if necessary.
Agency, poised, guard, external, safety, industry, revenue, support, implications, priorities, concerning, labor, impact, knowledgeable, treaties, conventions, counterparts, neighboring, improve, enforcement, manual, cargo, patrolling, stretches, ranking, officials, undermined, technology, static, imperatives, globalized, challenges, exception, Ministry, Finance, accountable, circumstances, autonomy, due, noncompliant, smugglers, decentralized, headquarters, regional, procedures, oversee, jurisdiction, processing, releasing, thus, formula, suited.
2. Form adverbs by adding the suffix –ly to the adjectives below. Mind the pronunciation of the suffixes in the adverbs (drop the bold-typed letter “a” in the cluster -ally). Follow the model.
Model: traditional – tradition(a)lly
Historical – …, national – …, international – …, potential – …, professional – …, rational – …, general – …, regional – …, local – …, organizational – … .
Translate the following expressions into Russian.
The nation’s guard; border implications of national priorities; counterparts in other countries; to improve operations or enforcement; inspecting cargo, vessels, and passengers; patrolling long stretches of border; higher ranking government officials; poorly educated, trained, and compensated; professionalism and integrity in customs; public and private sector organizations; to address new challenges; to match the constantly changing customs environment; the Ministry of Finance; the mission assigned to customs by the government; to deal with noncompliant traders and smugglers; operational policy and procedures; the level of verification; to find the organizational formula best suited for their particular circumstances.
Find English equivalents in the text.
Уникальная (особая) организация; правительственные учреждения; отечественная промышленность; национальные обязательства; внешние угрозы; государственные доходы; потенциальное влияние; договоры и соглашения (конвенции); соседние страны; обмениваться информацией; ручной труд; пункты въезда; профессиональная рабочая сила; выполнить свою миссию; ответственный за кадровую политику; юрисдикция; проверка деклараций и таможенная очистка товаров.
Match pairs of antonyms.
External, domestic, unclear, neighboring, emerging, general, obeying, poorly, static, private, international, manual, noncompliant, far-away, exception, obvious, internal, particular, mechanized, well, dynamic, public, disappearing, rule.
Paraphrase the underlined parts in the following sentences.
1. … customs organizations relate more closely with their counterparts in other countries …
2. They frequently look to customs administrations internationally …
3. … its staff was often poorly educated, trained, and compensated .
4. This arrangement undermined professionalism and integrity in customs.
5. The imperatives of a globalized economy on customs have become clear.
6. … customs organizations are fully accountable to the Ministry for their operations and results.
7. … a decision could be reached rationally given the unique administrative structure and economic circumstances of the country …
7. Translate the following contexts into Russian paying attention to different meanings of the word given.
|· a given name; · within a given period; · under the given conditions; · not often given to anger; · human givens; · level of knowledge on any given subject.||· They gathered at a given time. · I am sensible with money, given that I don’t earn that much. · Given the complexity of the task, they were able to do a good job.|
Fill in appropriate prepositions.
1. It poses a major threat … the country’s security.
2. They are aware … the difficulties.
3. The countries were poising … the brink … war.
4. I have an ethical and a moral obligation … my client.
5. Customs administrations cooperate … their foreign partners … many ways.
6. The measures have had a significant impact … the regional offices.
7. They regularly exchange information … crime, including noncompliant traders and smugglers.
8. It is well suited … the purpose.
9. Public officials must be accountable … their actions.
10. The government agencies are fully responsible … the revenue.
11. Managers assign large sums … money... travel budgets.
12. Are you sure this deal is … the level?
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