Vocabulary and grammar acquisition

Read the words paying attention to the pronunciation of the bold-typed letters. Consult a dictionary if necessary.

Automation, barriers, facilitation, result, own, measures, procedure, association, key,means, giant, leap, processing, even, reasons, among,expediting, accurate, transparency, mechanisms, revenue, focuses, equipment, aim, duplications, national, other, government, agencies, concepts, authorizations, issued, achieved, revised, Kyoto.


Name silent letters in the following words.

Through, while, designed, known, cargo, high-tech, align, could.

Translate the following expressions into Russian.

Customs formalities; border crossings; international trade; the movement of goods and passengers; customs barriers; promote trade facilitation; key activities;  an important means; a giant leap; to assist developing countries; cargo processing; similar software; different levels of automation; expediting cargo clearance; the timely and accurate reporting of statistics; revenue collection; a manual system; modern, high-tech equipment; to eliminate all unnecessary elements and duplications; international conventions; government agencies; issued electronically.

     4. Find English equivalents in the text.

Насколько (в той мере, как); в результате; в настоящее время; в то время как; что касается; с одинаковой скоростью; различные уровни автоматизации; веские причины; целостность и прозрачность; назвать всего лишь несколько (причин); достигнуть равновесия; оформление таможенных деклараций; система с ручным управлением; привести национальные процедуры и документацию в соответствие с международными правилами и стандартами.  

Write full names of the following acronyms and abbreviations.


6. Explain different meanings of the word convention. Translate the sentences into Russian.

The International Law Commission prepares draft conventions on various issues of international law.

Why should one conform to convention?

Before the convention comes into force, it has to be accepted formally by individual governments.

The organization of a national convention is the responsibility of the party's national committee.

5. We go to the weeklong annual teachers’ convention every summer.

6. He bought some new books at the science fiction convention.

7. The Democratic National Convention will meet next week to announce their party’s candidate for president.

8. It’s important to follow the conventions of punctuation.

9. They say school is important for teaching children social codes and conventions.

10. Many sports shows have recently adopted the conventions of the talk show.

11. The poet rebelled against literary convention.

12. The award by convention should have gone to the student with the highest grade.

13. As a matter of convention, the oldest members speak first.

14. The director’s use of the usual romantic conventions made the film boring and predictable.

Fill in missing prepositions if necessary.

1. … a result, accurate reporting … statistics … revenue collection has been provided.

2. Developed countries created their own systems … e-customs … trade facilitation.

3. To align the national procedures … international standards, the government signed a new convention … cargo clearance.

4. Customs administrations had better focus … the implementation … the agreements aiming … more effective monitoring and control.

5. The countries managed to strike a sound balance … revenue collection and trade facilitation.

6. … computer terms, WAVE is an audio format used … storage … sound data.

7. The truck moved … the border crossing … a slow pace.

8. I mention this … relation … the upgrading … this software.

Match the nouns with their definitions.

1 barrier a a formal or explicit statement or announcement
2 trade b any activity which makes tasks for others easy
3 automation c an established or official way of doing something
4 declaration d the action of buying and selling goods and services
5 procedure e a rule or policy that makes it difficult or impossible for something to happen
6 facilitation f the use of methods for controlling processes electronically

9. Read the text carefully. Fill in the gaps with the word data or information. Discuss with your partner the difference between the two notions.

Raw, unprocessed streams of facts are usually referred to as _______. Entries of numbers, text, images or other forms of computerized output are considered _______. Raw _______, however, is a relative term as _______ processing may have a number of stages, so the output from one processing stage can be considered to be raw _______ for the next. After _______ is processed and shaped in a meaningful form useful to a person or computer, it turns into _______.

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