Робота над граматичним матеріалом. Revision.

1. Що таке пасивний стан дієслова?

2. Як утворюються часові форми пасивного стану в англійській мові?

3. Часові форми якої групи не вживаються у пасивному стані?

Ex.1. Перепишіть речення у пасивному стані:

Model: They grow wheat here. – Wheat is grown here.

1. The girls water the flowers every day.

2. We don’t discuss such questions at our meetings.

3. My sister teaches me English.

4. They will not finish the work tomorrow.

5. Mary has lost her keys.

6. Our music teacher was conducting the orchestra.

7. The travelers made camp not far from the village.

8. His assistant will meet the delegation.

9. The workers are repairing the road.

10. Somebody built this castle in the 16th century.

Ex. 2. Rewrite these sentences. Instead of using somebody, they, people etc., write a passive sentence.

1. Somebody cleans the room every day. The room is cleaned every day.
2. They cancelled all flights because of fog. All ___________________________
3. People don't use this road much. ______________________________
4. Somebody accused me of stealing money. I ___________________________
5. How do people learn languages? How ______________________________
6. Somebody warned us not to go out alone. ______________________________                                          7. Jean told me that the book was worth reading. __________________________                                       8. Scientists tell the Earth goes round the Sun. _____________________________                                          9. William Turner, English artist, painted this picture. _______________________                                    10. Somebody searches for news every minute. ___________________________

Робота над текстом за професійним спрямуванням: 


People have always been curious about the creator of all animals and plants. There have been many divine3, theories about how people came into being. However, research findings have proved that all animals including human beings have evolved from primitive ancestors. In 1859 Charles Darwin put forward his theory of evolution which claimed that all animals changed and developed during a continuous process. This process is brought about by the species11 gradually adapting12 to the demands of its environment, through a gradual genetic change.

To understand this complicated process some theoretical back-ground is necessary.

Inside each of our body's cells, there is a complex substance known as DNA. It looks like a very twisted ladder and its full name is deoxyribonucleic acid.. Sections of DNA are known as genes. They give instructions about when different types of cells should develop, and whereabouts in the body they should be. DNA bears the genetic code which is a tremendously   complicated set of instructions to the cells in the body, so that they will know how to develop. As a result of these complex instructions, we develop specialized liver cells, heart cells, hair cells, skin cells, and all other different types of cells which make up a body.

Larger strands of DNA are known as chromosomes. They are arranged in pairs. However, an ovum, a female cell capable of developing into a baby as well as a male cell which should fertilize it have only half of the chromosomes. In this way, when organisms reproduce themselves sexually, — by combining sperm from one parent with ova from another, — the new individual possesses characteristics of both parents.

The new combination of characteristics may be particularly beneficial.

The child may inherit the very best features of its parents and be healthier, stronger and fitter. Sometimes, there are slight mistakes made in the copying. When the special reproductive cells are made, and these can result in the new individual being different in someway. These mistakes are known as genetic mutations and sometimes are very beneficial. When these beneficial changes occur, evolution happens.

Every organism is in competition with other members of its species. So anything which helps this plant or animal to get an edge over the competition will be useful. The individuals with beneficial characteristics are more likely to survive if some natural change happens. This is known as natural selection which is all about the survival of the fittest — and the fittest is the one which is best adapted to its environment. It should be clear now that it is a mistake to think of evolution as a straight-line development leading up to the human being. This is only one of many different branches of evolution

Модуль самостійної роботи:

1. Повторення граматичного матеріалу.

2. Словник-мінімум для користувача комп’ютера.

3. Анотування газетної статті за фахом.

Індивідуальна робота за семестр:

1. Індивідуальне читання за фахом.

2. Словник-мінімум (за професійним спрямуванням).



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