A 4 year old child complained of pain during deglutition, indisposition. Objectively: palatine

Arches and tonsils are moderately edematic and hyperemic, there are greyish-white films up to

Mm thick closely adhering to the subjacent tissues. What pathological process are these

Changes typical for?

A Inflammation

B Dystrophy

C Necrosis

D Metaplasia

E Organization


A 9 m.o. child has delayed dentition, it is also out of order. Upper jaw configuration is horizontal

("high" palate); microscopically - irregular mineralization of tooth enamel, wrinkled enamel

Prisms, some of them are vacuolized. Predentin zone is extended; there are solitary denticles.

What disease is it?

A Early rickets

B Late rickets

C Osteomalacia

D Gout

E Hypervitaminosis D


Microscopical renal examination of a 36 y.o. woman who died from renal insufficiency revealed

In the glomerules proliferation of capsule nephrothelium as well as of podocytes and phagocytes

 accompanied by formation of "crescents", capillary loop necrosis, fibrinous thrombs in their

Lumens; sclerosis and hyalinosis of glomerules, atrophy of tubules and fibrosis of renal stroma.

What is the most probable diagnosis?

A Subacute glomerulonephritis

B Acute glomerulonephritis

C Chronic glomerulonephritis

D Focal segmentary sclerosis

E Membranous nephropathy


A forensic medical expert examines the body of a 58 y.o. man who had been consuming large

Amounts of alcochol for a long time and died at home. Microscopicaly: the right lung is dense

And enlarged, its incision revealed that the tissue is greyish and homogenous, pleura is covered

With greyish layers. Microscopically - alveolar cavities contain fibrin, hemolyzed erythrocytes.

Make a diagnosis:

A Croupous pneumonia

B Focal pneumonia

C Interstitial pneumonia

D Primary pulmonary tuberculosis

E Caseous pneumonia


Autopsy of a 50-year-old man revealed the following changes: his right lung was moderately

Compact in all parts, the dissected tissue was found to be airless, fine-grained, dryish. Visceral

Pleura had greyish-brown layers of fibrin. What is the most likely diagnosis?

A Croupous pneumonia

B Tuberculosis

C Bronchopneumonia  

D Interstitial pneumonia

E Pneumofibrosis


Autopsy of a 56 y.o. man revealed in the right temporal part of brain a big focus of softened grey

Matter that was semi-liquid and light grey. Arteries of cerebral tela contain multiple whitish-yellow

Thickenings of intima that abruptly narrow the lumen. What is your diagnosis?

A Ischemic stroke

B Brain abscess

C Hemorrhage

D Hemorrhagic infarction

E Brain edema


A 22 y.o. woman has enlarged lymph nodes. Histologically: a lymph node contains lymphocytes,

Histiocytes, reticular cells, small and big Hodgkin's cells, multinucleated Sternberg cells, isolated

Foci of caseous necrosis. What disease are these changes typical for?

A Lymphogranulomatosis

B Lymphosarcoma

C Chronic leukosis

D Acute leukosis

E Lung cancer metastasis


Analysis of a punction biopsy material of liver revealed hepatocyte dystrophy with necroses as

Well as sclerosis with disorder of beam and lobulous structure, with formation of pseudolobules

And regenerative nodes. What is the most probable diagnosis:

A Liver cirrhosis

B Chronic hepatosis

C Chronic hepatitis

D Progressive massive liver necrosis

E Acute hepatitis


Autopsy of a man, who had been suffering from the multiple bronchiectasis for 5 years and died

From chronic renal insufficiency, revealed that kidneys were dense and enlarged, with thickened

Cortical layer of white colour with greasy lustre. What renal disease might be suspected?

A Secondary amyloidosis

B Glomerulonephritis

C Chronic pyelonephritis

D Necrotic nephrosis

E -


Autopsy of a 49-year-old woman who died from chronic renal insufficiency, revealed: kidneys

Were dense, reduced, multicoloured, with haemorrhagic areas. Microscopic examination

revealed some hematoxylin bodies in the nuclei of the renal tubule epithelium; "wire-loop"

Thickening of the glomerular capillary basement membrane; here and there in the capillaries

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