Техника смещения в прошлое или будущее. How many books doeshe intend to buy?



How many books doeshe intend to buy? - How many books did he intend to buy ?

Will you sing this song, please? – If you wouldsing this song, please?

Техникаиспользованияпродолжённоговремени

Let me know his plans. – What meetings ishe planning to arrange?

Is your brother staying withthem at Christmas? – Will your be staying with them at Christmas?

Техника использования модальных глаголов в устойчивых конструкциях

She is not going to the concert by any chance? - She would not go to the concert by any chance?

Where did it happen? – Where would that have happened?

Техника использования модальных глаголов в конструкциях условного наклонения

Is he busy right now? – I wondered if he was busy right now.

I wonder if our sister is interested in Literature. - I wonder if our sister might be interested in Literature.

Will hesing this song, please? – If he would sing this song, please?

He wantsme to write a book about Russia. - He’d like me to write a book about Russia.

Стратегия намёка

Техники: снижения определённости, использования отрицания

Техника снижения определенности предполагает использование дежурных слов – заполнителей пауз (fillers) типа kindof, sortof, sotospeak, moreorless и др., а также модификаторов с глаголами намерения типа tobeinclined, totend, tointend

We don’t understand what hesays. Could he be more explicit?

 - We don’t quite understand what he means. Could he be a bit more explicit?

I believeshe’s got no news about my dad. - I don’t believeshe’s got any news about my dad.

Function : Desire suggestion

What doesshe want to eat? - What would she like to eat?

Do you want to sing? – You wouldn’t like to sing by any chance.

Won’t it be better to turn the TV set on? - Wouldn’t it be better to turn the TV set on?

2) Задания для тренировки и закрепления

1. Use minimizing adverbs (just, only, a bit, a little, very) or assertive words (somehow, somewhat )in the following sentences.

a) This information… shocked us.

b) They could give … more attention to their children.

c) We’ll be back in a … .

d) It was … a slip of the tongue.

e). Thestreets in our city are … overcrowded.

f) Could we make a … … announcement

2. Use fillers (kind of, sort of, so to speak, more or less идр.) or verbs of intension (to be inclined, to tend, to intend) where necessary.

a) Hewans to give an advice.

b) There is a misunderstanding.

c) It was out of place.

d)Wealways overlook it.

d) The pupils feel that it is important.

e) His latest translation is incomplete.

f) They always attend our class hours.

g) We criticize everyone lately.

Занятие 6.

Function : Advice/ opinion (совет, мнение)

Практическое занятие

1. Определите, какая стратегия речевого поведения была использована в предложениях. Распределите предложения в две группы.

Группа А. Стратегия дистанцирования

Группа В. Стратегии намёка

a) I say, let’s go to a restaurant downtown. – I’d say we might go to a restaurant downtown.

b) I don’t want you to spend a fortune there. – I’d rather you didn’t spend a fortune there.

c) You shouldn’t talk in terms of money. – I wish you wouldn’t talk in terms of money.

d) I should suggest a bar. – If I were you I’d suggest a bar.

e) We should better go to a café. – It would be better if we went to the café.

f) I thought you didn’t like café meals. – I’d have thought you didn’t like café meals.

g) He is not right in doing so. – I don’t think he is quite right in doing so.

h) The manager was led to think he doesn’t like the job. - The manager was led to think he is not particularly keen on the job.

i) He has reason. - He is not beyond any reason.

j) Roy has no background knowledge. - Roy has little background knowledge.

k) He has no experience in dealing with people. - He lacks experience in dealing with people.

2. Определите, какие техники была использована в предложениях. Выберите из предложенного списка:

A. Техника использования модальных глаголов в конструкциях условного наклонения

B. Техника использования модальных глаголов в устойчивых конструкциях

C. Техника скрытого и двойного отрицания

D. Техника использования модальных глаголов в устойчивых конструкциях

E. Техника прямого отрицания

F. Техника снижения определённости(выражая негативное мнение)

G. Техникаминимизации

a) You should join up with this firm. – If I were you I’d join up with this firm.

b) I think we’ll spend a night here. – I’d think we might spend a night here

c) I suppose you’ll not accept it (I hope you will). - I don’t suppose you’ll accept my offer.

d) Is it alright to do it this way? – Might it be alright to do it this way?

e) He won? I thought he wasn’t good at chess. – I’d have thought he wasn’t good at chess.

f) He has (many) pretensions. – He is not without pretensions.

g) It looks like it is untimely. – I feel it is more or less untimely, I mean it looks so.

h) He doesn’t see that the job he is offered is not trivial. - He fails to see that the work he is offered is not trivial.

i) During his job interview he didn’t say a word. - During his job interview he scarcely said a word.

j) It is likely he’ll be denied this position. - It is not unlikely he’ll be denied this position.

k) Well, he has ambitions. - Well, he is not without ambitions.

l) I say, this is not the best way to treat cats. – I’d say, this is not the best way to treat cats.

m) We often overlook it. - We tend to overlook the importance of tests.

n) I feel that it is important. - I am inclined to feel that it is important.

o) It could be better if you quit. - I sort of think It could be better if you quit.

p) You should / must warn them in advance. - You could / might warn them in advance.

Занятие 7.

1) Ознакомление с новым материалом.

Function :Attitude/ explanation /Оpinion

Стратегия намёка

Техникаминимизации

Thisinformation shocked us. - This information somewhat shocked us.

They were surprised and decided to ask their teacher. - They were somewhat surprised and decided to asktheir teacher.

We weresurprised by thenews. – Actually we were sort of surprised by the news.

I think it’s very convenient - I think it’s just very convenient.

They say it’s a 5minutes walk to the nearest bank. - They say it’s only a 5minutes walk to the nearest bank.

.

Стратегия уклонения

Стратегия уклонения употребляется, чтобы смягчить резкость и прямолинейность высказывания. Для этого британцы и американцыиспользуют в своей речи определённый набор структур. К ним относятся: вводные фразы, безличные предложения, формулы вежливых вопросов и ответов, утверждения в форме вопросов и т.д.

В стратегии уклонения выделяют две тактики:

.

1.Тактика уклонения от ответственности (смягчение утверждений), в которой используются различные смягчающие средства:

 

а) if – phrases: forgive me if I’m wrong; if I’m not mistaken; if you ask me, etc.

 

б) Mind/view phrases: To my mind; in my opinion/ view; from my point of view, etc.

 

с) as – phrases: As far as I know; as far as I’m concerned; as I see it; as for me, etc.

 

Такжесмягченияутвержденийможнодобитьсяприпомощисоответствующихвводныхслов (fillersилиparentheticals): Well, personallyIsortofthinkyououghttodoitagain, really.


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