Glucocorticoids metabolic effects



Carbohydrate exchange – contrinsular action:

· hyperglycaemia;

· glyconeogenesis;

· glucose transport inhibiting in muscular and fatty tissue;

· compensatory hyperinsulinemia at hyperglycemia;

· glycogenogenesis.

Proteinic exchange:

catabolic effect:

· proteins decomposition in muscular, epithelial and lymphoid tissues;

· aminoacids coming to blood and liver;

· urea production and nitrogen excretion activation;

· negative nitrogenic equilibrium;

anabolic effect – enzymes and some proteins synthesis in liver;

antianabolic effect – proteins synthesis (de novo) inhibiting in liver at translation.

Lipid (fatty) exchange:

· lipolytic effect in tissues;

· hyperlipidemia and hypercholesterolemia;

· ketogenesis activation in liver;

· lipogenesis stimulation and fat redistribution activation in fatty tissue of trunk central axe and face;

· appetite and fat consumption stimulation.

 

Mineralocorticoids main effects:

· Na+ channel reabsorbtion and K+ secretion activating;

· osmotic pressure, cells excitability and arterial pressure support;

· ionic transport in sweat and salivary glands and alimentary tract regulation;

· excessiveness symptoms – hypervolemia, hypertension, oedemas, hypopotassiumemia, alkalosis, arrhythmias, magnium and calcium secretion increasing;

· deficiency symptoms – hypovolemia, hypotension, hyperpotassiumemia, acidosis, arrhythmias, brain disorders, vasopressine excessiveness, digestion disturbances.

 

Adrenaline main effects:

· causes enforcement and frequenting of cardiac activity, improves excitement passage in heart;

· constricts arterioles in skin, abdominal organs and non-working muscles, increases arteriolar pressure;

· makes vasodialting action to heart coronary vessels, lungs vessels, brain vessels and the ones of working muscles;

· weakens contractions and secretion of stomach and small intestine, increases tone of alimentary tract sphincters;

· relaxes bronchial musculature as a result of which bronchi and bronchioles lumen is increased and pulmonary ventilation is increased;

· causes contraction of iris radial muscle that leads to pupils dilation;

· increases sensitivity of receptors particularly – of eye retina, auditory and vestibulary apparatuses;

· reduced sweat-releasing,activates thermogenesis.

 

Adrenaline metabolic effects;

Carbohydrate exchange - hyperglycemic effect:

· glucagon secretion activation;

· insuline secretion inhibiting;

· glycogenolysis in liver and muscles;

· gluconeogenesis activation in liver and muscles;

· glucose catching inhibiting in muscles, myocardium and fatty tissue.

Lipid exchange:

· triglycerollipase activation and lipolysis activation in fatty tissue;

· ketogenesis stimulation in liver;

· activates lipolysis;

· fatty acids and acetoacetic acid usage increasing as energy source in myocardium and kidney cortex, fatty acids – with skeletal muscles.

Somatotropine main effects:

· tissular growth factor activation;

· proteinic biosynthesis stimulation;

· hyperglycemia (glucagons secretion);

· liver insulinase activation;

· lipolysis stimulation (catecholamines);

· ketogenic effect.

Prolactine main effects:

· mammary glands growth;

· milk secretion;

· yellow body secretory activity stimulation;

· watery-salty metabolism regulation, vasopressine and aldosterone secretion stimulation;

· inner organs growth stimulation;

· maternal instinct realization;

· fat and protein synthesis increasing;

· hyperglycemia.

Thyreoid hormones functions:

· define normal growth, mental and physical development of organism; thyroid hormones accelerate organism development;

· control heat-production;

· control oxygen taking velocity in tissues;

· control respiratory center normal fucntion;

· heart contractions force and rate;

· increase beta-adrenoreceptors quantity in heart and skeletal muscle as well as in fatty tissue and lymphocytes

· increase erythropoietin formation in bone marrow and thus enforce erythropoiesis;

· stimulate alimentary tract peristalsis;

· activate synthesis of many structural proteins in organism;

· enforce watery and mineral exchange (mainly iodate) as well as regulate basal exchange;

· increase CNS excitability.

Parathormone functions

· regulates Ca, P and Mg homeostasis in organism with calcitonin and vitamin D;

· stimulates Ca and P coming from bone tissue to blood (makes hypercalciemic action);

· enforces Ca reabsorbtion in kidneys and its absorbtion in intestine;

· activates osteoclastes function (they cause bone tissue resorbtion and Ca ions exit from it).

Action result: Ca increasing and inorganic phosphate decreasing in blood.

 

Calcitonine functions (it is produced by thyroid C-cells):

· regulates Ca and P homeostasis in organism;

· inhibits activity of osteoclasts destroying bone tissue and activates functions of osteoblasts managing bone tissue formation;

· helps Ca and P passage from bone tissue to blood;

· decreases Ca and P level in organism at its increasing.

MALE SEXUAL HORMONES

Sertoli cells of testis produce testosterone, Leidig’s cells – inhibine and estrogens.

Inhibine

· encourages feed-back connection with hypophysis which inhibits follitropine secretion

Testosterone

· determines sexual differentiation in ontogenesis;

· regulates sexual behavior (sexual attraction and libido);

· determines sexual signs development on male type: secondary male features – hairiness on face, in fossae auxillaris, genitals growth;

· performs spermatogenesis regulation;

· causes anabolic effect (to skeleton and body musculature) – growth stimulation;

· lack N, P, K and Ca in organism;

· activates RNA synthesis;

· stimulates erythropiesis.

FEMALE SEXUAL HORMONES:

· determines secondary female features development;

· determines female genitals growth and maturation;

· stimulates skeleton growth and maturation;

· encourages subcutaneous fatty cellulose accumulation by female type;

· control menstrual cycle.

Estrogens functions:

· inhibit folliculo-stimulating and luteinizing hormone secretion as well as decrease adenohypophysis answer to gonadoliberine action;

· possess anabolic action;

· enforce bone tissue metabolism and accelerate skeleton bones maturation (stop bone tissue growth at puberty coming);

· encourage Na and water lack in organism up to oedemas development (in big doses);

· influence on lipids exchange, decrease cholesterol level in blood;

· trigger sexual differentiation during ontogenesis;

· determine sexual maturation, female sexual features development, menstrual cycle formation;

· detect uterus muscle (myometrium) and epithelium (perimetrium) growth as well as stimulate proliferative (second) phase of menstrual cycle;

· regulate sexual behavior (by female type);

· increase uterus contraction and its sensitivity to oxitocine;

· regulate milky glands development;

· give weak anabolic effect;

· increase osteoblasts activity.

 

Progesterone functions:

it is estrogens antagonist; so, it limits their proliferative action in endometrium, myometrium and vaginal epithelium as well as causes endometrium changings necessary for fertilized egg cell implantation; thus, it preserves pregnancy;

it decreases uterus readiness to contraction;

activates endometrium secretory structures;

activates milky glands growth and development;

decreases gonadotropins secretion inhibiting by hypophysis;

encourages ovulation inhibiting during pregnancy;

possesses weak catabolic action;

causes antialdesteronic effect – Na-uresis.

 

Placenta hormones:

 steroid:

· estriol;

· estron;

· estradiole;

· progesterone;

peptide:

· gonadotropine or chorionic gonadotropine;

· somatomammotropine;

· thyreotropine;

· corticotropine;

· beta-endorphine;

· alpha-melanothropine;

· beta-lipothropine;

 neuropeptides:

· thyroliberine;

· somatostatine;

· corticoliberine;

· gonadoliberine;

· somatoliberine.

 


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