Glucocorticoids metabolic effects
Carbohydrate exchange – contrinsular action:
· glucose transport inhibiting in muscular and fatty tissue;
· compensatory hyperinsulinemia at hyperglycemia;
· proteins decomposition in muscular, epithelial and lymphoid tissues;
· aminoacids coming to blood and liver;
· urea production and nitrogen excretion activation;
· negative nitrogenic equilibrium;
anabolic effect – enzymes and some proteins synthesis in liver;
antianabolic effect – proteins synthesis (de novo) inhibiting in liver at translation.
Lipid (fatty) exchange:
· lipolytic effect in tissues;
· hyperlipidemia and hypercholesterolemia;
· ketogenesis activation in liver;
· lipogenesis stimulation and fat redistribution activation in fatty tissue of trunk central axe and face;
· appetite and fat consumption stimulation.
Mineralocorticoids main effects:
· Na+ channel reabsorbtion and K+ secretion activating;
· osmotic pressure, cells excitability and arterial pressure support;
· ionic transport in sweat and salivary glands and alimentary tract regulation;
· excessiveness symptoms – hypervolemia, hypertension, oedemas, hypopotassiumemia, alkalosis, arrhythmias, magnium and calcium secretion increasing;
· deficiency symptoms – hypovolemia, hypotension, hyperpotassiumemia, acidosis, arrhythmias, brain disorders, vasopressine excessiveness, digestion disturbances.
Adrenaline main effects:
· causes enforcement and frequenting of cardiac activity, improves excitement passage in heart;
· constricts arterioles in skin, abdominal organs and non-working muscles, increases arteriolar pressure;
· makes vasodialting action to heart coronary vessels, lungs vessels, brain vessels and the ones of working muscles;
· weakens contractions and secretion of stomach and small intestine, increases tone of alimentary tract sphincters;
· relaxes bronchial musculature as a result of which bronchi and bronchioles lumen is increased and pulmonary ventilation is increased;
· causes contraction of iris radial muscle that leads to pupils dilation;
· increases sensitivity of receptors particularly – of eye retina, auditory and vestibulary apparatuses;
· reduced sweat-releasing,activates thermogenesis.
Adrenaline metabolic effects;
Carbohydrate exchange - hyperglycemic effect:
· glucagon secretion activation;
· insuline secretion inhibiting;
· glycogenolysis in liver and muscles;
· gluconeogenesis activation in liver and muscles;
· glucose catching inhibiting in muscles, myocardium and fatty tissue.
· triglycerollipase activation and lipolysis activation in fatty tissue;
· ketogenesis stimulation in liver;
· activates lipolysis;
· fatty acids and acetoacetic acid usage increasing as energy source in myocardium and kidney cortex, fatty acids – with skeletal muscles.
Somatotropine main effects:
· tissular growth factor activation;
· proteinic biosynthesis stimulation;
· hyperglycemia (glucagons secretion);
· liver insulinase activation;
· lipolysis stimulation (catecholamines);
· ketogenic effect.
Prolactine main effects:
· mammary glands growth;
· milk secretion;
· yellow body secretory activity stimulation;
· watery-salty metabolism regulation, vasopressine and aldosterone secretion stimulation;
· inner organs growth stimulation;
· maternal instinct realization;
· fat and protein synthesis increasing;
Thyreoid hormones functions:
· define normal growth, mental and physical development of organism; thyroid hormones accelerate organism development;
· control heat-production;
· control oxygen taking velocity in tissues;
· control respiratory center normal fucntion;
· heart contractions force and rate;
· increase beta-adrenoreceptors quantity in heart and skeletal muscle as well as in fatty tissue and lymphocytes
· increase erythropoietin formation in bone marrow and thus enforce erythropoiesis;
· stimulate alimentary tract peristalsis;
· activate synthesis of many structural proteins in organism;
· enforce watery and mineral exchange (mainly iodate) as well as regulate basal exchange;
· increase CNS excitability.
· regulates Ca, P and Mg homeostasis in organism with calcitonin and vitamin D;
· stimulates Ca and P coming from bone tissue to blood (makes hypercalciemic action);
· enforces Ca reabsorbtion in kidneys and its absorbtion in intestine;
· activates osteoclastes function (they cause bone tissue resorbtion and Ca ions exit from it).
Action result: Ca increasing and inorganic phosphate decreasing in blood.
Calcitonine functions (it is produced by thyroid C-cells):
· regulates Ca and P homeostasis in organism;
· inhibits activity of osteoclasts destroying bone tissue and activates functions of osteoblasts managing bone tissue formation;
· helps Ca and P passage from bone tissue to blood;
· decreases Ca and P level in organism at its increasing.
MALE SEXUAL HORMONES
Sertoli cells of testis produce testosterone, Leidig’s cells – inhibine and estrogens.
· encourages feed-back connection with hypophysis which inhibits follitropine secretion
· determines sexual differentiation in ontogenesis;
· regulates sexual behavior (sexual attraction and libido);
· determines sexual signs development on male type: secondary male features – hairiness on face, in fossae auxillaris, genitals growth;
· performs spermatogenesis regulation;
· causes anabolic effect (to skeleton and body musculature) – growth stimulation;
· lack N, P, K and Ca in organism;
· activates RNA synthesis;
· stimulates erythropiesis.
FEMALE SEXUAL HORMONES:
· determines secondary female features development;
· determines female genitals growth and maturation;
· stimulates skeleton growth and maturation;
· encourages subcutaneous fatty cellulose accumulation by female type;
· control menstrual cycle.
· inhibit folliculo-stimulating and luteinizing hormone secretion as well as decrease adenohypophysis answer to gonadoliberine action;
· possess anabolic action;
· enforce bone tissue metabolism and accelerate skeleton bones maturation (stop bone tissue growth at puberty coming);
· encourage Na and water lack in organism up to oedemas development (in big doses);
· influence on lipids exchange, decrease cholesterol level in blood;
· trigger sexual differentiation during ontogenesis;
· determine sexual maturation, female sexual features development, menstrual cycle formation;
· detect uterus muscle (myometrium) and epithelium (perimetrium) growth as well as stimulate proliferative (second) phase of menstrual cycle;
· regulate sexual behavior (by female type);
· increase uterus contraction and its sensitivity to oxitocine;
· regulate milky glands development;
· give weak anabolic effect;
· increase osteoblasts activity.
it is estrogens antagonist; so, it limits their proliferative action in endometrium, myometrium and vaginal epithelium as well as causes endometrium changings necessary for fertilized egg cell implantation; thus, it preserves pregnancy;
it decreases uterus readiness to contraction;
activates endometrium secretory structures;
activates milky glands growth and development;
decreases gonadotropins secretion inhibiting by hypophysis;
encourages ovulation inhibiting during pregnancy;
possesses weak catabolic action;
causes antialdesteronic effect – Na-uresis.
· gonadotropine or chorionic gonadotropine;
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