Content module 2. Excitable tissues general physiology.



1. Resting potential, origin mechanisms, its parameters, physiological role.

2. Action potential, origin mechanisms, its parameters, physiological role.

3. Excitability. Depolarization critical level, cellular membrane depolarization threshold.

4. Cell excitability changings during single action potential development.

5. Excitement conductance mechanisms through nervous fibers.

6. Excitement conductance regularities in nervous fibers.

7. Excitement conductance mechanisms through nervous-muscular synapse.

8. Excitement and contraction conjugation. Skeletal muscles contraction and relaxation mechanisms.

9. Muscular contractions types: single and tetanic; isotonic and isometric.

Content module 3. Organism nervous functions regulation.

1. Representation about reflex. Reflectory arc structure and its links functions.

2. Receptors, their classification, excitement mechanisms.

3. Proprioreceptors, their types, functions. Muscular spindles structure and functions.

4. Excitement conductive mechanisms and regularities in central synapses.

5. Central inhibiting types. Pre- and post-synaptic inhibiting developmental mechanisms.

6. Excitement and inhibiting summation with CNS neurons.

Content module 4. CNS role in motor functions regulation.

1. Spine motor reflexes, their reflectory arcs, physiological importance.

2. Spine conductive function. Spine reflexes dependence on brain centers activity. Spinal shock.

3. Posterior brain motor reflexes, decerebrational rigidity.

4. Midbrain motor reflexes, their physiological importance.

5. Cerebellum, its functions, injury symptoms.

6. Thalamus, its functions.

7. Limbic system, hypothalamus, their functions.

8. Basal ganglii, their functions, injury symptoms.

 

Content module 5.

Autonomic nervous system role in visceral functions regulation.

1. Autonomic nervous system structure general plan. Autonomical reflexes, their reflectory arcs.

2. Autonomic nervous system synapses, their mediators, cytoreceptors and blockators of conduction transmittance in synapses.

3. Sympathetic nervous system influence on visceral functions.

4. Parasympathetic nervous system influence on visceral functions.

5. Metasympathetic system role in visceral functions regulation.

 

Content module 6.

Visceral functions humoral regulation and endocrine glands role in regulation.

1. Humoral regulation, its differences from nervous one. Humoral regulation factors characteristics.

2. Hormones features, their main influencings. Hormones actions mechanism to the target cells.

3. Humoral regulation contour. Hormonal secretion regulation by endocrine glands.

4. Hypothalamic-hypophyseal system role in endocrine glands functions regulation.

5. Somatothrophic or growth hormone, thyroxine and triiodtyronine, insuline role in body linear development, as well as organism physical and psychical development regulation.

6. Calcitonine, parathormone, calcytriole role in calcium and phosphates ions constancy in blood regulation.

7. Pancreas hormones role in organism functions regulation.

8. Thyroid gland (T3, T4) hormones role in organism functions regulation.

9. Female sexual system physiology, its functions, sexual hormones role.

10.  Male sexual system physiology, sexual hormones role.

11.  General representations about non-specific organism adaptation to the stress situation. Hormones role in non-specific adaptation.

12.  Sympathico-adrenal system role in the regulation of non-specific organism adaptation to the stress situation.

13. Hypophyseal-suprarenal system role in the regulation of organism non-specific adaptation to the stress situation. Glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids main influencings on organism.

 

TESTS FOR SELF-CONTROL:

1.It is necessary to estimate the excitability level of the excitability of tissue in an experiment. What parameter is it necessary to define for this purpose?

*A. Threshold of depolarization.

B. Resting potential.

C. Duration of action potential.

D. Amplitude (altitude) of action potential.

E.Critical level of depolarization.

2. It is necessary to estimate the level of the nerve excitability of a patient. What parameter is it necessary to define for this purpose?

A. Resting potential.

*B. Threshold force of the irritant.

C. Critical level of depolarization.

D. Amplitude of action potential.

E. Duration of action potential.

3. Constant current is applied with the diagnostic aim for teeth (sensitive nerves and pulp) excitability determining. Healthy teeth (independently on group) have equal excitability and react to the constant current force equal to 2-6 mcA. Such a reaction occurs in a patient at current threshold irritation at current force equal to 1 mcA. It testifies to:

A. Hypoexcitability and parodontosis

B. Hypoexcitability and pulpitis

*C. Hyperexcitability and parodontosis

D. Hyperexcitability and pulpitis

E. Pulp decomposition.

4. Why at threshold irritation applying in absolute refracterity phase answer reaction is absent:

A. Decreased excitability

B. Insufficient irritation force

*C. Excitability is absent

D. High excitability

E. Decreased lability.

5. The irritation of what force is it necessary to inflict on a nervous fibre to entail excitation in the phase of relative refractority?

A. Under-threshold.

*B. Above-threshold.

C. Threshold.

D. Under-threshold prolonged.

E. Threshold prolonged.

6. As a result of blockade of the ionic channels of the cell membrane its resting potential diminished from –90 to -70 mV. What channels were blocked?

A. Sodium.

*B. Potassium.

C. Calcium.

D.Magnesium.

E. Chloric.

7. During the research of an isolated excitable cell it was stated that the threshold of the stimulation force of the cell diminished substantially. What was the reason for it?

A. Blockade of energy production in the cell.

B. Inactivation of membrane sodium channels.

C. Inactivation of membrane calcium channels.

D.Activation of membrane potassium channels.

*E. Activation of membrane sodium channels.

8. As a result of the action of electric current on an excitable cell there was depolarization of its membrane. The movement of what ions through the membrane plays a basic part in the development of depolarization?

A. K+

B. HCO3.

C. Ca2+

D. Cl.

*E. Na+.

9. As a result of activating the ionic channels of external membrane of an excitable cell its resting potential was considerably increased. What channels were activated?

A. Fast calcium.  

B. Sodium. 

*C. Potassium.  

D. Slow calcium. 

E. Sodium and calcium.

10. What will the reduction of the muscles of the upper extremity be at an attempt to lift a load beyond one's strength?

*A. Isometric.

B. Isotonic.

C. Auxotonic.

D. Phasic.

E. Single.

11. Skeletal muscle is irritated with a series of electroimpulses in an experiment. Every next impulse is in the period of the shortening of a single muscular contraction. What type of muscular contraction will arise?

*A. Smooth or complete tetanus.

B. Toothed or non-complete tetanus.

C. Asynchronous tetanus.

D. A series of single contractions.

E. Muscle contracture.

12. An isolated muscle of a frog is rhythmically irritated by electric impulses in an experiment. Every next impulse is in the period of relaxation of the previous contraction. What contraction will arise?

A. Asynchronous.

B. Single.

*C. Toothed (non-complete) tetanus.

D. Smooth (complete) tetanus.

E. Tonic.

13. Muscles volume can become increased in sportsmen due to trainings. Call, please, muscular contraction energy direct source:

A. Kreatinephosphate.

*B. Аdenosinetriphosphate

C. Аdenosinediphosphate

D. Lactic acid

E. Neutral fatty acids

14. Person is performing physical exercises. At what stage muscles activity intensiveness will be maximal?

A. Tiredness

B. Prepairing

C. Pre-start state

*D. Stationary state

E. Restoration

15. Calcium pump work is weakened in experiment under chemical substance action to the frog’s smooth muscle. What phenomena one can observe in course of this?

*A. Relaxation duration increasing

B. Action potential increasing

C. Resting potential decreasing

D. Action potential distribution velocity decreasing

E. Sodium-potassium pump activation.

16. Under experimental conditions one hangs load to muscle from urether. Muscle is stretched and is rested in such situation even after load taking down. What muscular tissue feature is demonstrated by this experiment?

*A. Plasticity

B. Automatism

C. Elasticity

D. Contractility (contractiveness)

E. Ability to stretching.

17. At skeletal and smooth muscle irritation with the same frequency smooth muscle responds (answers) with tetanic contraction and skeletal one – with separate contractions. What smooth muscle peculiarities can serve as explaining of this?

A. Smooth muscle lability is more

*B. Smooth muscle refracterity is more

C. Smooth muscle chronaxy is less

D. Smooth muscle contraction duration is less

E. Sarcoplasmic reticulum is developed more in smooth muscle.

18. Stomach or urinary vesicle slow filling in the limits of physiological norm doesn’t cause pressure increasing in these organs. What smooth muscles peculiarity is on the basis of this phenomenon?

*A. Plasticity

B. Automatism

C. Excitability

D. Contractiveness.

E. Refractiveness.

19. Serotonin is applied for stomach and intestine smooth-muscular insufficiency. This substance increases alimentary organs smooth muscles contractions frequency. Which of alimentary organs smooth muscles feature will be expressed in the biggest extent?

A. Contractiveness

B. Excitability

C. Conductiveness

*D. Automatism

E. Plasticity.

20. During the examination of a sportsman after an intensive physical activity the incoordination of movements was detected. At the same time the force of muscle contraction was the same. The reason for it can be the diminution of conduction of excitement speed. What structures does it take place in first of all?

A. Conduction tracts.

B. Nervous-muscle synapses.

C. Efferent nerves.

D. Afferent nerves.

*E. Central synapses.

21. Complete demyelinization of fibers of conductive ascending tracts of a patient is revealed. Formation of what sensations will worsen the least?

A. Acoustic.

B. Proprioceptive.

C. Aftervision.

D. Tactile

*E. Temperature.

22. A frog reacts by generalized convultions to the least irritation after the introduction of strychnine. The blockade of what structure of the CNS is the reason for such reaction?

*A. Inhibitory synapses.

B. Excitatory synapses.

C. Renshow cells.

D. Adrenoreceptors.

E. Cholinergic receptors.

23. After a long training a sportsman tired, working capacity decreased. In what link of the reflex arch did fatigue occur first of all?

A. In an efferent.

B. In an afferent.

C. In receptors.

*D. In nerve centres.

E. In muscles.

24. The toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum blocks the entrance of calcium ions into the nerve endings of axons of motoneurons. Poisoning with it is dangerous to life by:

A. Vomiting development.

B. Cardiac arrest.

C. Disorder of vascular tone.

*D. Respiratory standstill.

E. Development of diarrhea.

25. The working capacity of a man reduced as a result of physical activity. The changes in what structures are the reason for the fatigue first of all?

A. Muscles.

*B. Nerve centres.

C. Afferent nerves.

D. Efferent nerves.

E. Nervous-muscle synapses.

26. It is ascertained in an experiment that during the excitation of the motoneurons of flexor muscles the motoneurons of extensor muscles are inhibited. What kind of inhibition underlies this phenomenon?

*A. Reciprocal.

B. Inhibition after excitation.

C. Pessimal.

D. Feedback (Renshow).

E. Lateral.

27. In unfresh products (meat, fish, tinned goods) microbic toxine botulin can be present. Its action to the myo-neural synapses is similar to calcium removal from them. Why this intoxication can lead to the lethal result?

A. Because of heart stoppage

B. Due to respiratory muscles contraction in tetanic regimen because of mediator releasing increasing

C. Because of respiratory center excitability decreasing and its activity inhibiting

D. Due to excitement conductance speed decreasing in myelinized fibers

*E. Due to respiration stoppage because of respiratory muscles relaxation

28. 45-yeared patient addressed the neurologist with the complaints on skin sensitivity decreasing to touching, pressure, tickling. The doctor came to the conclusion during careful examination that the patient has decreased sensitivity of receptors located in skin. Which of mechanoreceptors mentioned below don’t belong to mechanoreceptors:

A. Auditory

*B. Olfactory and gustatory receptors

C. Vestibulary

D. Тactile

E. Receptors of sustentacular-motor apparatus

29. Nausea, vomiting, sweat releasing enforcement appeared in 25-yeared woman during the rolling merry-go-round. What receptors activation, the most probable, led to these symptoms?

A. Skin mechanoreceptors

B. Skeletal muscles proprioreceptors

C. Corti organ receptors

D. Noceoceptive receptors

*E. Vestibulary receptors

30. Major mediator role in exciting synapses is in:

A. Postsynaptic membrane permeability diminishing to Na and Ca ions

*B. Postsynaptic membrane depolarization

C. Postsynaptic membrane permeability increasing to potassium and chlorum ions

D. Postsynaptic membrane permeability increasing to calcium and hydrogen ions

E. No one answer is correct

31. Frog answers with flexory reflex of the leg at this leg irritation with tweezers. But the animal answers with generalized motor reaction to stronger irritation. What is of the base of observed reaction?

*A. Excitement physiological irradiation

B. Excitement pathological irradiation

C. Inhibition process enforcement

D. Inhibition process weakening

E. Excitement process enforcement

32. It is known that excitement through nervous centers is directed in one direction. It is determined by:

A. Nerves features

*B. Synapses features

C. Dendrites structure

D. Axons features

E. Mediators features

33. It is ascertained in an experiment that during the excitation of the motoneurons of flexor muscles the motoneurons of extensor muscles are inhibited. What kind of inhibition underlies this phenomenon?

*A. Reciprocal.

B. Inhibition after excitation.

C. Pessimal.

D. Feedback (Ranshow).

E. Lateral.

34. An experiment is conducted on a spinal frog. The time of defense flexor reflex decreased from 10 sec. to 6 sec. after increasing the area of the skin surface, which is acted on with acid solution. What mechanism underlies the diminishing of the time of defense flexor reflex?

A. Irradiation of excitation on divergent nervous chains.

*B. Spatial summation of excitation.

C. Temporal summation of excitation.

D. Principle of dominant.

E. Recirculation of excitation.

35. During the pathologoanatomic research of the spinal cord of a 70-year-old man the destruction and diminishing of the quantity of anterior horns nuclei cells in cervical and thoracic spines were found. What functions were damaged during the man's life?

A. Moving functions of the lower extremities.

*B. Moving functions of the upper extremities.

C. Sensitiveness and moving functions of the upper extremities.

D. Sensitiveness of the lower extremities.

E. Sensitiveness of the upper extremities.

36. After a traffic accident a patient of 36 years got paralysis of muscles of extremities on the right, the loss of pain and temperature sensitivity on the left, partial reduction of tactile sensation on both sides. These changes are most characteristic of the defect of some part of brain. What part is it?

A. Motor cortex on the left.

*B. Right half of spinal cord.

C Left half of spinal cord.

D. Anterior division of the anterolateral pathway of spinal cord.

E. Dorsal columns of spinal cord.

37. 3. The toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum blocks the entrance of calcium ions into the nerve endings of the axons of motoneurons. Poisoning with it is dangerous to life by:

A. Vomiting development.

B. Cardiac arrest.

C. Disorder of vascular tone.

*D. Respiratory standstill.

E. Development of diarrhea.

38. Complete demyelinization of fibers of conductive ascending tracks of a patient is revealed. Formation of what sensations will worsen the least?

A. Acoustic.

B. Proprioceptive.

C. Aftervision.

D. Tactile

*E. Temperature.

39. 8.A hemorrhage into the brainstem of a patient of 70 is diagnosed. The exa-mination found out the increase of the tone of flexor muscles and the decline of the tone of extensor muscles. The irritations of what structures of brain can explain the changes in the tone of muscles?

A. Substantia nigra.

B. Vestibular nuclei.

C. Quadrigeminal plate.

*D. Red nuclei.

E. Reticular formation.

40. For better examination of the fundus of eye a doctor began to drip the solution of atropine on the conjunctiva of the patient's eye. It resulted in pupil expansion. The blockade of what membranous cytoreceptors stipulated such effect?

A. H2-receptors.

B. N-cholinoreceptors.

C. α-adrenoreceptors.

D. β-adrenoreceptors.

*E. M-cholinoreceptors.

41. A careless student met the dean by chance. The concentration of what hormone will be increased in the student's blood first of all?

A. Cortisol.

B. Thyreoliberin.  

C. Corticotropin.

*D.Adrenaline. 

E. Somatotropin.

42. After a cranial trauma a patient's respiration became infrequent and deep. What structure of cerebrum is damaged?

A. Medulla oblongata.

B. Hypothalamus.

*C. Metencephalon.

D. Cortex of large hemispheres.

E. Cerebellum.

43. After the introduction of microelectrodes into the structures of diencephalon the animal's eyesight failed completely. What subcortex structure was possibly damaged?

A. Suprachiasmatic nucleus of hypothalamus.

B. Medial geniculate body.

C. Associative nuclei of thalamus.

D.Supraoptical nuclei of hypothalamus.

*E. Lateral geniculate body.

44. During an operation on cerebrum it was noted that the irritation of a certain area of the cortex of cerebrum caused tactile and temperature sensation of a patient. Which area of cerebral cortex was irritated?

A. Cingulate gyrus.

B. Precentral gyrus.

C. Upper lateral gyrus.

*D. Postcentral gyrus.

E. Parahippocampal gyrus.


 

TASKS FOR SELF-CONTROL

 

1. It is known that ionic channels of excitable cell membrane regulate membrane potentials altitude. It was assessed experimentally that tetrodotoxin blockaded excitable cell membrane sodium channels. Question. How ionic distribution on membrane internal and external sides will be changed at this? Answer. Sodium ions concentration will get increased non-significantly on membrane external side because sodium ions stop completely pass to the cell.

2. It is known that ethylendiamine tetraammonium (EDTA) binds calcium ions in alive cells. EDTA was injected under experimental conditions on frog’s nervous-muscular preparation in nervous-muscular synapse region. Question. How excitement conductance process will be changed in a synapse? Answer. It will lead to acetylcholine releasing stoppage in nervous-muscular synapse and transmittance blockade through the synapse.

3.Ca ions gradient was increased experimentally outside and inside the excitable cell. Result: resting potential will decreased but action potential will be non-changed.

4. What conditions should be fulfilled for singular muscular contractions summarizing? Answer: Repeated irritation must be performed during first singular contraction and must’t coincide to the first excitement refractory period.

5. Frog’s nervous roots binding spine with periphery was cutted under experimental conditions. Question. What effects will be observed at cutting all anterior roots on the right? Answer: right extremities movements will disappear.

6. Contractions of separate muscles of trunk and extremities was observed under experiment at animal brain weak electrical current irritation. Question. What brain parts were irritated? Answer: Precentral gyrus motor areas.

7. Impulse activity of nerves carrying the information from flexor proprioreceptors and elbow joint bursa receptors was registrated under experiment on monkey. Question. Whether extremities movements in the joint will be saved at this? Answer: yes.

8. The patient with haemorrhagy in medulla oblongata was admitted to the hospital. Question. Why is it so dangerous? Answer: heart stoppage, vascular collapse and respiration stoppage can be developed.

9. 10-yeared child complaints on sleepness, attention weakening and bad study. Question. What probable reasons of such a state? Answer: Thyroid increasing.

 

 


 

DIRECTORY FOR THE STUDENT BY STUDYING THE SUBJECT

PHYSIOLOGY

 

(structure, aims, content of the subject, assessment principles, control questions)

Introduction.

Study hours number – 300 (10 credits of ECTS), from which:

lectures - 60 hours, practical classes – 140 hours, from which 10 – credit module control, self-work – 100 hours. It is studied at the 2-nd course during 2 terms. The subject content is divided into 4 modules and 17 content modules.

 

2. The subject “Normal Physiology” structureand marks putting for the current activity (traditional marks conversion into degrees; mark in degrees for self-work performance).

The module№, study hours number, ECTS credits number

Content modules number, their numbers

Practicalclasses number

Degrees that are putted to the students for their marks at the classes

Mini-mal deg-rees

Degrees for individu-al work perfor-mance as SWS

“5” “4”

“3”

“2”
Мodule 1 90/3,0 6 №№ 1-6 22 5

4

3 0 66 10
Мodule 2 90/3,0 3 №№ 7-9 24 5

4

3 0 72 -
Мodule 3 60/2,0 4 №№ 10-13 10 12

9

6 0 60 -
Мodule 4 60/2,0 4 №№ 14-17 8 15

12

8 0 64 -
                   

 

Student is allowed to pass the credit module control under conditions of educational programme fulfillment if he took not less than minimal degree for his current study activity (it represents degree number corresponding to the mark “3” multiplied into practical classes quantity).

The degrees maximal quantity for the student current activity for every module is 120.

Credit test control is standed to the student if he had 50 degrees from 80 at test control.


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