Task 3. To observe insuline action on white mice

2 white mice are putted under bell-glass. Mice didn’t eat before experiment. One of them is injected by insuline intraperitoneally (0,5 units on 10 kg of body weight). To fixate time. The second mice is injected by 0,5 ml of physiological solution. One observes at mice state. At hypoglycaemic shoke phenomena development (tachypnoe, fits) mice to whom the investigator injected insuline must be injected by glucose for death prevention.


Task 4. Spermatozoid reaction of Gally-Maininy

In males-frogs out of their reproductive period one can find out no spermatozoids in cloaka content (never). Mature sperm cells releasing from testes and their coming to cell occurs under gonadothropine hormones influence. This process is realized in course of several tens of minutes after pregnant woman urine introduction.

Investigated urine (4 ml) one introduces simultaneously in frog’s lymphatic sac. In 30-60 min after urine injection the investigator carefully introduces in frog’s cloaka eye pipette end, to fetch cloaka content little content, transmits on subject glass and, covering by covering glass see under microscope large increasing in a darkened vision field. If sperm cells are found in cloaka content, reaction result is considered to be positive. On different species frog’s males in various seasons Gally-Mainini reaction gives 85-95% of positive results.  

5. Literature recommended:

1. Lecture course.

2. Mistchenko V.P., Tkachenko E.V. Methodical instructions on Normal Physiology on practical classes for dental and medical students.-Poltava, 2005.-P. 56-57.

3. Kapit W., Macey R.I., Meisami E. The Physiology Colouring Book: Harpers Collins Publishers, 1987.-P. 112-123, 141-153.

4. Guyton – Ganong – Chatterjee. Concise Physiology /Ed. By Dr Raja Shahzad Gull: M.B.B.S., F.C.P.S., King Edward Medical College.-Lahore, 1998 (1st Edition).-P.426-480, 485-500.

5. Guyton A.C. Textbook of Medical Physiology.-NY, 1992.-P.884-996.

6. Materials for self-control:

A.Control questions:

1. Hormones role in psychical and physical development processes and body linear growth regulation:

a) adenohypophysis, its hormones, their influence:

– somatotropine and somatomedines (insuline-like gowth factors I and II) role in growth and development providing;

– somatotropine synthesis and secretion regulation;

– somatotropine metabolic effects;

b) thyroid gland, its hormones:

– action mechanism to target cells;

– influence on psychical functions state;

– influence on growth and development processes;

– action to metabolic processes, visceral systems and so on;

– thyroxine and triiodtyronine synthesis and secretion regulation;

c) action of other hormones influencing on normal growth processes (insuline, gonads steroid hormones, cortysol).

2. Hormones role in homeostasis regulation:

a) pancreatic hormones (insuline, glucagon, somatostatine) and their influence on glucose metabolism and level in blood;

b) glucose constant level support in blood (humoral regulation);

c) calcium balance in organism and hormones regulating calcium and phosphate homeostasis: parathormone, calcitonine, calcitriol or 1,25 (OH)2 D3;

d) other hormones influence on calcium metabolism (glucocorticoids, somatotropine and insuline-like growth factor, thyroid hormones, estrogens, insuline);

e) vasopressine and oxytocine role.

3. Hormones role in organism adaptation regulating:

a) suprarenal glands medulla hormones (catecholamines), their role in organism and secretion regulation;

b) suprarenal glands cortex hormones, their secretion regulation, glucocorticoids secretion circadian rhythms, their influence and action mechanisms to target cells;

c) representation about stress and stressogenic factors;

d) types of adaptation to stress factors action;

e) general adaptative syndrome (Hans Selie);

f) sympathetic-adrenale system role in adaptation;

g) suprarenal cortex hormones (glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids), hypophyseal, thyroid hormones (thyroxine, triiodtironine) as well as vagal-insular system role in organism non-specific adaptation to stressful factors action.

4. Hormones role in sexual functions regulating:

a) sexual glands;

b) sexual differentiation, reproductive system development and functions;

c) sexual maturation period;

d) male sexual system, its structure and functions:

– spermatogenesis;

– testes endocrine function;

– testes function regulation (particularly due to hypothalamic-hypophyseal system action);

– erection and ejaculation, hormonal and neural regulative mechanisms;

e) female sexual system, its structure and functions:

– ovaries hormones;

– their role;

– ovaries functions regulation;

– ovarial-menstrual cycle;

– pregnancy;

– placental hormones;

– lactation;

f) endocrine glands age peculiarities.




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