Між Україною та Великобританією)



Обсяг матеріалу:географічне положення, територія, населення, природа, клімат, адміністративний поділ України. Відносини України з Великобританією. Визначні особи України.

Студент повинен:

знати лексико-граматичний мінімум, що належить до сфери країнознавчої ле­ксики; культурні та країнознавчі особливості України;

уміти розповісти про Україну та її співпрацю з іншими країнами та міжнарод­ними організаціями.

І. Pre-reading stage:

1. What countries does Ukraine border on?

2. What are the main rivers in Ukraine?

3. What is a number of people living in Ukraine?

4. What is the territory of Ukraine?

5. What branches of economy are developed in Ukraine?

6. Why our economy is interested in oil and gas pipelines going through the terri­tory of Ukraine?

7. What is the biggest treasure in our country?

8. What are the main agricultural cultures grown in our country?

9. What is the industrial potential of Ukraine?

1. Study the following words and combinations:

1. to be located - бути розташованим

2. to be criss-crossed - перехрещуватися

 

2. to ensure - забезпечувати, гарантувати

3. highway - автомагістраль

4. watershed - басейн

5. pipeline - трубопровід

6. high-voltage transmission lines - високовольтні лінії передач

7. above sea level - над рівнем моря

8. depth - глибина

9. deposit - родовище

10. up-to-date - сучасний

11. synthetic diamonds - штучні діаманти

12. fuel-паливо


Англійська мова

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II. While-reading stage:

2. Read and translate the text.

UKRAINE'S ECONOMY IN THE CONTEXT OF INTERNATIONAL

ECONOMIC RELATIONS

On the map of the world you can find a new independent state with a thousand-year-old history - Ukraine. It borders on Belarus and Russia in the north and in the east. In the west Ukraine is bounded by Moldova, Romania, Hungary, Slovakia and Poland. Great areas are occupied by steppes and forest-steppe regions. The main part of Ukraine is lo­cated in the watershed of the Dnipro River, which divides Ukraine into two parts: Right-Bank and Left-Bank Ukraine.

The territory of our country has an astonishing variety of landscapes. We have high mountains, endless forests, beautiful rivers and lakes. The largest lake of Ukraine is Swit-yaz, its total area is 24.2 sq.km and the depth is 58.5 metres.

Within the borders of Ukraine we find the Carpathian Mountains with the highest peak Hoverla (2061) which is located in the Chornohora massif.

The Crimean Mountains stretch in three parallel ranges. The Main Range is the highest, rising to 1500 m above sea level. Its highest peak is Roman Kosh (1545 m.).

To have an idea of Ukraine's economic potential and define the scale of reforms which must be carried out let us get acquainted with some objective data. Ukraine is situ­ated in the geographical center of Europe. The country occupies a territory of 604 thou­sand square kilometers. Ukrainian's population is 48 million, more than 74 percent of whom are Ukrainians. For comparison the population of Germany is 79.7 million people, Great Britain - 57, Poland - 39, Finland - 5. Ten million ethnic Ukrainians live outside the country on the territories of the former Soviet Union, and close to 5 million live in other foreign countries. The diaspora is the strongest in Canada and the USA. There are 6 cities in Ukraine with a population of over 1 million.

Ukraine takes a leading place in iron ore extraction, production of steel, cast iron, tractors, mineral fertilizers, sugar, and grain; it also succeeded in coal mining, producing concrete, electric energy and various equipments.

In the south of the country Ukraine has access to the Black Sea and the Sea of Above which are connected with the ocean. Twenty-seven thousand kilometers of rail­roads intertwine throughout the territory of Ukraine.

Oil and gas pipelines of international significance go through the territory of Ukraine. Fees from transit oil and gas pipelines pay for most of the imported products. Ukraine's main importers of oil and gas are Russia and Turkmenistan. In spite of great re­serves of coal, the importance of rock-coal in the energy balance is decreasing, and this tendency will continue in the future because the layers are located very deep and their ex­traction becomes more and more costly. That is why Ukraine should pay more attention to regeneration sources of energy: solar, wind, hydrothermal, and even more attention to re­sources and energy saving technologies.

Steppes and plains compose the most part of the territory of Ukraine. The top soils are mainly black. They are the biggest treasure of the Ukrainian land. 25 percent of world's black rich soils are in Ukraine. Together with the fact, that Ukraine's climate is mainly moderately continental, it allows for considerable progress in agricultural produc-


Англійська мова

24

tion under the conditions of market economy. Sugar beets, wheat, rye, barley, oats, corn, sun flower, flax, buckwheat, potatoes, onions, tomatoes, cabbages, also a large variety of grain cultures, fruits and vegetables are grown in Ukraine.

Because of her potential Ukraine is an industrial-agricultural country. Her machine-building potential includes tractors and agricultural machine-building, production of diesel locomotives and railroad cars, automobiles, rockets, sea and river vessels, refrigerators, TV-sets, electric motors, equipment for metallurgic, chemical, mine and textile industries.

Natural and human recourses are sufficient for creating a developed internal market and becoming a friendly and equal partner in the world market.


3. Find equivalents in two columns:

To border

To divide

Neighbour

Fertile black soil

Coal

Iron ore

Oil

Oil pipeline

Independence

Non ferrous metallurgy

Sugar beet

Flax

Sunflower

To deteriorate

Cast iron

Concrete

To decrease

Energy saving technologiese


розділяти соняшник вугілля

мати спільний кордон нафтопровід нафта

кольорова металургія льон

погіршуватись цукровий буряк незалежність плодоносний чорнозем сусід

залізна руда зменшувати бетон

енергозберігаючі технології чавун


4. Translate the following words and word combinations:

Rock-coal, great reserves, extraction, mineral fertilizers, sea level, moderately con­tinental, considerable progress, rye, barley, oats, buckwheat, cabbages, vessel, to create, internal market.

5. Use proper tense-forms of the verbs. Translate the sentences.

1. Ukraine (to have) many rivers.

2. The Dnipro (to divide) Ukraine into two parts: Left-bank and Right-bank territo­ries.

3. Ukraine (to take) a leading place in iron ore extraction, production of steel, cast iron, tractors, mineral fertilizers, sugar, and grain.

4. Twenty-seven thousand kilometers of railroads (to intertwine) throughout the ter­ritory of Ukraine.

5. In spite of great reserves of coal, the importance of rock-coal in the energy bal­ance (to decrease), and this tendency (to continue) in the future because the layers are lo­cated very deep and their extraction (to become) more and more costly.


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25


6. Steppes and plains (to compose) the most part of the territory of Ukraine.

7. The top soils (to be) mainly black.

8. Natural and human recourses (to be) sufficient for creating a developed internal market and becoming a friendly and equal partner in the world market.


W. Practice Drills:

1. Speak on the topic "Geographical Position of Ukraine


»


Use the chart.


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