Open the brackets and use the verbs in appropriate simple forms.

1. The Doctors Without Borders (is/are) a non-profit organization.

2. The company (made/was made) much profit last year.

3. He never (will become/became) a chief executive officer.

4. The managers (behave/behaved) in the way they (direct/are directed).

5. Who (run/runs) the company?

6. A firm bond (built/was built) between the organizations.

7. They often (share/will share) the responsibilities and duties.


Make irregular plural forms of the following nouns. Use a grammar textbook if necessary.

Life – lives, knife – …, leaf – …, basis – …, crisis – …, man – …, woman – …, person – …, child – …, datum – …, criterion – … .


Translate the text into English.

Существует несколько основных типов организаций: частные, государственные и некоммерческие. Они имеют разные цели. Частные компании зарабатывают прибыль. Государственные организации контролируются государством. Некоммерческие организации создаются на благо общества. Они существуют на пожертвования и государственные средства.



You are working for an international NPO. Your friend has just become a CEO in a big private company. He is inviting you to change your job and join the company which he runs. You promise to consider his offer. Finally, you refuse because you do not want to leave the NPO’s team. You like these people very much because their aim is to help others.



 Browse the Internet for the full forms of the following English abbreviationsand acronyms.

Acronym/ abbreviation Full form Russian equivalent
A/C, a/c   текущий счет
ASAP   как можно скорее
CCC   Совет таможенного сотрудничества
CEO   главный управляющий, исполнительный директор
CIS   Содружество Независимых Государств
DDP   поставлено с оплатой пошлины
del.   задержанный (о поставке товара )
EC   Европейское Сообщество
F.O.T.   не облагаемый налогом
FAO   ФАО (организация по продуктам питания и сельскому хозяйству при ООН)
FX   иностранная валюта
G.W.   вес брутто
GATT   Генеральное соглашение по тарифам и торговле
HS   Гармонизированная система описания и кодирования товаров
I/L   импортная лицензия, разрешение на ввоз
IBRD   Международный банк реконструкции и развития
ICC   Международная торговая палата
IMF   Международный валютный фонд
IT   подоходный налог
m.v.   рыночная стоимость
NGO   неправительственная организация
OECD   Организация экономического сотрудничества и развития
P.&L.   прибыль и убыток
WHO   Всемирная организация здравоохранения, ВОЗ
WTO   Всемирная организация по торговле

Self-assessment grid

Tick (✓) “Yes” or “No” answers in appropriate columns and lines to self-assess your knowledge and skills. Yes No

I know:

- the topical vocabulary “Types of organizations”;
- the rules of reading of the letter c in different phonetic contexts;
- different meanings and functions of the word one;
- irregular plural forms of nouns;
- some English acronyms and abbreviations;
I can:
- match words with their definitions;
- translate polysemantic English words used in different contexts;
- form nouns from verbs with the help of the suffix –ee;
- use indefinite pronouns some, any, no;
- differentiate where to use no or not;
- role-play situations related to work in organizations of different type.
Total number of positive/negative answers:

Module 4

Pre-reading issues


1. What is a good way to manage people and organizations?

2. Who is more successful – the leader able to delegate his powers to others or the one who likes to dominate?

3. Is making decisions a cooperative or individual thing?

4. Do you think that getting too many people involved in the project can make it better?

Management styles

There are different types of management styles. Here is a look at the four different types of management styles.

An autocratic manager makes decisions without the consultation of others, serving as a dictator type. The problem with this type of management style is that the staff lose motivation working in an environment where they have no say. This style of leadership is more suited for a prison setting or in the military and not so much for business management.

A democratic manager is willing to share work with his staff by delegating it to others. Employees love this type of management style because they feel involved and part of the process. Their job performance is likely to be better than in an autocratic setting. Also, depending on what type of work it is, employees may feel like the work is being pushed off on them because you as a manager don’t feel like doing it. Getting too many people involved in the project or process could slow the work down. It could also mean less time for you to concentrate on your work as your team asks questions and waits on your answers before proceeding to the next steps.

Participative management style, also sometimes known as consultative management style,relies on getting feedback from your staff before coming to a conclusion and making a decision. The downside to this style of management and leadership is that employees may feel that you don’t value their opinion or are too stubborn if after all of the feedback is received you go off and make the decision on your own without incorporating any of their feedback. If you are going to make company or departmental policy changes, this type of style can make the team feel involved.This style also works well for brainstorming sessions as you work on new product ideas or marketing promotions.

In laissez-faire management style, the team is given the freedom to complete the job or tasks in any way they deem it should be done. It is a hands- off approach at the management level in terms of direction, but the manager is there to answer questions and provide guidance as needed. This is a good way to help develop individual contributors into leaders to make your team stronger in the long run. On the flip side, it can lead to conflict on the team as some employees try to assume the role as a leader in the interim or to dictate to others how their work should be done.

As you can see there are many different management styles and each of them can serve a purpose depending on the type of business and environment you are in as well as the situation. The most effective management styles are those which you can combine with your own management style to create a good working environment for all involved.

(From: Brick Jackson. The Different Types of Management Styles)

Text comprehension

1. What are the four main management styles?

2. What are the negatives sides of autocratic management?

3. Does a democratic manager enjoy the support of a team?

4. What are the disadvantages of the democratic approach to management?

5. What is the way of making decisions in participative management   style?

6. When does this style work well?

7. What is a good way to help develop individual contributors into leaders?

8. What are the drawbacks of laissez-faire management style?


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