Vocabulary and grammar acquisition

Read the words paying attention to the pronunciation of the bold-typed letters. Consult a dictionary if necessary.

Private, public, types, governed, component, main, aim, deliver, national, regional, health, army, council, society, without, border, voluntary, whose, donor, fund, employee, abandon, means, just, shared, responsibilities, firm.

Divide the words into two columns according to the rule of reading of the letter “c”. Consult a dictionary if necessary.

The rule: Read the letter “c” as the sound /s/ when it occurs before the letters “e”, “i” or “y”. In all other cases read it as the sound /k/.

/s/ /k/
services public


Capitalism, component, structure, McDonalds, companies, sector, controlled, citizens, local, society, doctors, direct, combination, effective.

Translate the expressions into Russian.

 Non-profit organizations; private organizations; governed by the laws of capitalism; to make profit; governmental component; public sector organizations; on the other hand; owned and controlled by the government; to deliver government services to citizens; local councils; for the benefits of society; on a voluntary basis; at risk; government funds; traditional thinking; a combination of shared responsibilities and duties; to build a firm bond.

Find English equivalents in the text.

Некоммерческая организация; основная цель; создавать (зарабатывать) прибыль; на национальном, региональном и местном уровнях; «Национальная служба здравоохранения»; взамен; «Врачи без границ»; работать на добровольной основе; государственное финансирование; взаимные обязательства; прочная связь.

Examine the text for synonyms of the following words.

Kind, principal, goal, element, for the sake, look for, person, workers, manage, opinion, mutual, strong, link.


Find in the text the words that match with the following definitions.

A) a system of rules that a society or government develops in order to deal with crime, business agreements, and social relationships;

B) a financial gain, especially the difference between the amount earned and the amount spent in buying, operating, or producing something;

C) the exercise of political authority over the actions, affairs, people; political rule and administration.


Translate the sentences into Russian paying attention to different meanings of the underlined words.

     1.    The passenger ran after the bus.

The train ran late.

The film ran longer than I expected.

Who runs your company?

2.     The captain gave the order to abandon the ship.

    Do not abandon your friends in trouble.

   The child was abandoned by her mother.

   They abandoned their native language.

3. It’s my duty to uphold the law.

     Duty is work that you have to do for your job.

   Is there a customs duty on these things?

   The doctor is on duty in the local hospital.


8. Form nouns with the help of the suffix –ee. Follow the model. Translate the pairs into Russian.

Employ – employee, trust – …, train – …, abandon – …, appoint – …, select – … .

Fill in the blanks with appropriate words or their parts.

1. NPOs are non-… organizations.

2. The laws of capitalism govern … organizations.

3. Their main aim is to … profit.

4.  On the one hand, they are inseparable; on the … hand, it is difficult for them to communicate.

5. NPOs provide goods and services without seeking anything … return.

6. You can do much … the benefits of society.

7. There are many people who work on a voluntary … to help others.

8. Be careful! Your life is … risk.

9. The federal government runs the country at a … level.

10. There is a firm … between the twins.


10. Comment on the functions and meanings of the word “one” in different contexts.

a) One should know laws and must follow them.

     b) He has worked for one of these companies.

     c) Private organizations are the ones designed for making profit.

     d)  There are many effective ways to run a bank but this one is the best.

11. Choose a proper alternative form.

1. There was /were three managers and a CEO in the office.

2. There is not/no profit made by the company.

3. Are there some/any NPOs in your country?

4. There will be/won’t be any effective way of its solution.

5. There are many duties and responsibilities, are there/aren’t there?


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