Bacterioscopic examination of a smear from the pharynx of a diphtheria suspect revealed bacilli with volutine granules. What etiotropic drug should be chosen in this case?

A. Diphtheritic anatoxin

B. Interferon

C. Bacteriophage

D. Antidiphtheritic antitoxic serum

E. Eubiotic

A patient has a decreased vasopressin synthesis that causes polyuria and as a result of it evident organism dehydratation. What is the mechanism of polyuria development?

A. Reduced tubular reabsorption of protein

B. Acceleration of glomerular filtration

C. Reduced tubular reabsorption of $Na$ ions

D. Reduced tubular reabsorption of water

E. Reduced glucose reabsorption

A 62 year old patient who previously worked as stoker was admitted to a hospital with complaints about general weakness, abrupt weight loss, hoarse voice, dyspnea, dry cough. Laryngoscopy revealed a tumour in the pharynx that invaded vocal cords and epiglottis. What is the most probable cause of tumour development?

A. Nitrosamines

B. Polycyclic aromatic carbohydrates

C. Retroviruses

D. Ionizing radiation

E. Aromatic amines and amides

 8 Patients who suffer from severe diabetes and don't receive insulin have metabolic acidosis. This is caused by increased concentration of the following metabolites:

A. Unsaturated fatty acids

B. Fatty acids

C. Triacylglycerols

D. Ketone bodies

E. Cholesterol

A 62 year woman complains of frequent pain attacks in the area of her chest and backbone, rib fractures. Her doctor suspected myeloma (plasmocytoma). What of the following laboratory characteristics will be of the greatest diagnostic importance?

A. Hypoglobulinemia

B. Proteinuria

C. Hyperalbuminemia

D. Hypoproteinemia

E. Paraproteinemia

A 2 year old child had acute respiratory viral infection and died from cardiopulmonary decompensation. Autopsy revealed that his right lung was hyperemic; in the 2nd, 6th and 10th segments and on the incision there were airless yellowish foci of irregular form, from several mm up to 1 cm larg E. Microscopical examination revealed exudate consisting mainly of neutrophils in the given areas of pulmonary tissue in the alveoles, bronchioles and bronchial tubes. What is the most probable diagnosis?

A. Acute bronchitis

B. Interstitial pneumonia

C. Focal pneumonia

D. Croupous pneumonia

E. Pulmonary abscess

Autopsy of a 17 year old girl who died from pulmonary failure revealed a small area of caseous necrosis in the inferior lobe of the right lung, and occurences of caseous necrosis in the bronchopulmonary, bronchial and bifurcational lymph nodes. What is the most probable postmortem diagnosis?

A. Hematogenous progression of primary tuberculosis

B. Hematogenous tuberculosis with predominant lung affection

C. Caseous pneumonia under secondary tuberculosis

D. Tuberculoma

E. Primary tuberculosis

 12 People adapted to high external temperatures have such pecularity: profuse sweating isn't accompanied by loss of large volumes of sodium chlorid E. This is caused by the effect of the following hormone upon the perspiratory glands:

A. Aldosterone

B. Natriuretic

C. Cortisol

D. Tgyroxin

E. Vasopressin

An experimantal animal that was kept on protein-free diet developed fatty liver infiltration, in particular as a result of deficiency of methylating agents. This is caused by disturbed generation of the following metabolite:

A. Acetoacetate

B. Cholesterol


D. Choline

E. Linoleic acid

 14 A man weighs 80 kg, after long physical activity his circulating blood volume is reduced down to 5,4 l, hematocrit makes up 50%, whole blood protein is 80 g/l. These blood characteristics are determined first of all by:

A. Water loss with sweat

B. Increased diuresis

C. Increased number of erythrocytes

D. Increased circulating blood volume

E. Increased protein concentration in plasm

Examination of a patient with impaired blood coagulation revealed thrombosis of a branch of inferior mesenteric artery. What bowel segment is damaged?

A. Colon transversum

B. Colon sigmoideum

C. Caecum

D. Ileum

E. Colon ascendens

A 42 year old woman with neuralgia of trifacial nerve complains about periodical reddening of the right part of her face and neck, sense of warmth gush, increased skin sensitivity. These effects can be explained by the following type of arterial hyperemia:

A. Reactive

B. Functional

C. Metabolic

D. Neuroparalytic

E. Neurotonic

A 7 year old child often suffers from streprococcic angin A. Doctor suspected development of rheumatism and administered serological examination. The provisional diagnosis will be most probably confirmed by presence of antibodies to the following streptococcic antigen:

A. M-protein

B. Capsular polysaccharide

C. C-carbohydrate

D. O-streptolysin

E. Erythrogenic toxin

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