A. Conditioned sympathetic reflexes

B. Unconditioned sympathetic reflexes

C. -

D. Conditioned parasympathetic reflexes

E. Unconditioned parasympathetic reflexes


A patient with diabetes mellitus suddenly began having sharp pain in his right foot. The examination revealed black hallux, swallen foot tissues, focuses of epidermis detachment,         secreta with unpleasant smell. What clinico-morphological form of necrosis developed in a patient?

A. Sequester

B. Bedsore

C. Dry gangrene

D. Infarction

E. Moist gangrene


A patient who had been suffering for many years from bronchial asthma died from asphyxia. The histological examination of his lungs revealed the following: much mucus with eosinophiles contents in the lumen of bronchioles and small bronci, sclerosis of interalveolar septa, dilation of alveolar lumen. Which of the mechanisms of allergy development is it?

A. Immunocomplex

B. Cytolysis, caused by lymphocytes

C. Cytotoxic

D. Reagin

E. Granulomatosis


Weeks since the blood transfusion a recepient has developed fever. What protozoal disease can it be?

A. Trypanosomiasis

B. Malaria

C. Amebiasis

D. Toxoplasmosis

E. Leishmaniasis


56. A patient died 3 days after the operation because of perforated colon with the manifestations of diffuse purulent peritonitis. The autopsy demonstrated: colon mucos membrane was thickened and covered with a fibrin film, isolated ulcers penetrated into different depth. Results of histology: mucous membrane necrosis, leukocytes infiltration with hemorrhages focuses. The complication of what disease caused the patient's death?

A. Nonspecific ulcerative colitis

B. Typhoid

C. Crohn's disease

D. Amebiasis

E. Dysentery


The examination of a foreigner revealed intestinal schistosomiasis. How could the patient be infected?

A. While eating fish

B. While eating meat

C. During river swimming

D. Through dirty hands

E. Through insects bites


For serological diagnostics of the whooping cough there was made a large-scale reaction with parapertussis and pertussis diagnostici. At the bottom of the test-tubes with diagnosticum of Bordetella parapertussis grain-like sediment was formed. What antibodies have this reaction revealed?

A. Agglutinins

B. Antitoxins

C. Precipitins

D. Opsonins

E. Bacteriolysins


Isolated muscle of a frog is rhythmically irritated with electric impulses. Every next impulse is in a period of relaxation from the previus contraction. What contraction of the muscle appears?

A. Tonic

B. Waved tetanus

C. Continuous (smooth) tetanus

D. Single

E. Asynchronous


A woman with myasthenia developed respiratory disorders, which required artificial ventilation. What type pf respiratory insufficiency did the woman have?

A. Centrogenic

B. Restrictive

C. Neuromuscular

D. Thoracophrenic

E. Obstructive


A 59-year-old man has signs of the parenchymatous jaundice and portal hypertension. On histological examination of the puncture of the liver bioptate, it was revealed: beam-lobule structure is affected, part of hepatocytes has signs of fat dystrophy, port-portal connective tissue septa with formation of pseudo-lobules,with periportal lympho-macrophage infiltrations. What is the most probable diagnosis?

A. Viral hepatitis

B. Liver cirrhosis

C. Chronic hepatosis

D. Toxic dystrophy

E. Alcohol hepatitis


62. A 46-year-old man on his head skin has got a little bulged out nevus pigmentosis of a dark colour which didn't trouble him. For the last time the nevus began growing in size, a pain developed, the colour became black-brown; the palpation of it demonstrated a node at its base. The histological examination of the removed tissue revealed spindle-shaped and polymorphic cells, the cytoplasm of which contained the pigment of fulvous colour. What tumor is it about?

A. Hematoma

B. Basalioma

C. Melanoma

D. Carcinoid

E. Hemangioma


A 26-year-old woman is complaining of thirst and dryness in her mouth. The examination has revealed glucosuria and blood glucose content of 6,5 mmol/l. What condition are these symptoms the most typical for?

A. Diabetes insipidus

B. Steroid diabetes

C. Diabetes mellitus

D. Renal diabetes

E. Alimentary glucosuria


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