Task 6. Explain the difference between the following words. Consult a monolingual dictionary and give examples which demonstrate the difference between them
issue – question
efficiency – effectiveness
goal – aim - purpose– objective – target–– end
to provide – to supply
to secure - to ensure
Task 7. Out of two italicized words choose the one which fits in the context.
1. It was an issue/question which immediately raised the issue/question of immediate technical assistance and the better utilization of scarce oil and gas resources.
2. The developing countries have three needs: to acquire the techniques of energy efficiency/effectiveness, to improve their usership practices in transport, manufacturing industry and agriculture, and to exploit fully their indigenous energy resources.
3. Each report should provide information on the achievement of efficiency/effectiveness programme targets, together with targets for future years.
4. At the turn of the century, the goal/purpose of sustainable energy supply to the EU amid toughening environmental requirements and improvement in the competitiveness of the European industry through the reduction of energy prices comes to the foreground.
5. The purpose/objective of this new Service was to ensure that energy security issues were taken into account in IEA's activities in order to achieve more effectively its aim/purpose.
6. The main purpose/target of the risk management system shall be consideration of the ability to accept any risk and work out the approach to their evaluation and management.
7. The United Nations and its specialized agencies should provide/supply third-world countries with support to ensure that the economic and social needs of their populations were adequately met.
8. Reduction of potential political and economic risks will secure/ensure reliability of energy supplies.
9. The programme of development of new fossil fuel finds must ensure/secure that there is adequate information available about the method and about any conditions necessary to ensure/secure that it will be safe and without risks to environment.
Task 8. Fill in the gaps with prepositions where necessary.
Energy Diplomacy in the 21st Century
Energy is … the intersection of national security and economic prosperity. The Department of State’s efforts … bilateral and multilateral diplomacy, economic statecraft, security, and development are widely affected …energy concerns. Secretary Clinton created the Bureau of Energy Resources … 2011 to integrate energy security interests … foreign policy decision making, putting energy diplomacy at the forefront of U.S. foreign policy. …
To meet the need … the traditional hydrocarbon resources we predominantly rely … today, and to manage the implications those resources have on national wealth and geopolitical power and influence, we:
· Promote a stable global energy supply… engaging diplomatic partners and private producers to maintain supply, calm markets, and pursue alternative energy options. This includes extensive diplomatic efforts to maintain global oil supplies … the context of implementing sanctions … Iran, as well as coordinating … our diplomatic partners the effective implementation of sanctions, particularly …petroleum and petroleum products.
· Continue to strengthen energy diplomacy efforts with new and emerging producersof all forms …energy … supporting the development of energy resources and transportation options.
· Engage … international forato build broad agreements on policies to boost global energy security.
Task 9.Fill in the gaps with the words and word combinations in the box. Make a list of collocations in which the boxed words are used and give their Russian equivalents.
|dimension, earnings, environmental, exploration, Investments, mining projects, natural gas, oil and gas resources, pipeline networks, relevance, strategic, supply deal, technology|
The geopolitics of Arctic energy
Arctic _____________ (1) are highly politicised. Within most Arctic countries, oil and gas development is politically controversial on environmental grounds and can have a significant influence on the political dynamics between central and local governments. Over time, the integration of the Arctic economy into the global economy – principally through energy and transport – will further increase its geopolitical _____________ (2).
In the US, the opening of further areas of the US Arctic to exploration and, ultimately, development has strong support within Alaska, but limited support elsewhere. In Canada, Arctic energy and _____________ (3)play into complex federal politics and the domestic politics of indigenous peoples across the north. In Greenland, _____________ (4) for offshore hydrocarbons is widely accepted as a pathway to greater economic prosperity and a guarantee of self-government. In Russia, maintaining oil production and increasing production of _____________ (5) is a _____________(6) imperative. In Norway, government and public support for development is contingent on strong _____________ (7) regulation.
There is a key geopolitical _____________ (8) to Arctic oil and gas developments, involving states’ power, stability and influence. This is particularly true of Russia, where hydrocarbons represent 40% of export _____________ (9) and the state budget depends on taxes and royalties from hydrocarbon production. Russia’s gas exports are a major feature of its geopolitical role in Europe, while expanding oil and gas exports to China has become an important policy objective for the Russian government. Nonetheless, development of the Russian oil and gas sector in the Arctic – particularly offshore – depends to some extent on the participation of Western oil and gas firms with the _____________ (10) and management skills to develop them.
The development of Norwegian gas production, and the potential for export via existing _____________ (11) to which the United Kingdom is connected, may reduce European dependence on other sources of gas. In November 2011 British company Centrica signed a 10-year, £13bn ($20bn) _____________ (12) for natural gas from Norway, following a wider UK–Norway Memorandum of Understanding on energy.
Increased oil and gas production in Arctic North America is often presented as a way of improving US ‘energy security’, though export prospects to Asia may ultimately trump home markets. _____________ (13) across the Arctic are increasingly international – with interest from Indian, Chinese and South Korean companies.
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