Task 2. Scan the text and answer the following questions. 1. How has the meaning of energy security expanded over time?

1. How has the meaning of energy security expanded over time?

2. Do you agree that climate-inclusive approach should beintegrated into the concept of energy security?Give your reasons.

3. What are the international and domestic factors turning energy poverty into a serious problem and how could it be better addressed?

4. What two key aspects does the universality of energy security imply?

5. What steps has international community taken over the last decade to formulatecommon principles of energy security? What actions do these principles specify?

6. How is the international energy security defined in a draft Convention presented by the Russian Federation? Was it comprehensive?

7. Why were the negotiations on the “International Energy Charter” of  2014 important for the  energy community?

8. What contradictions should energy consumers and producers overcome to reach an agreement on a common concept oif international energy security?

9. What is common concept of international energy security supposed to be based on?

10.  What are the tools ensuring security of supply?

11.  How do OPEC and GECF attempt to agree with importers to ensure security

12. Why is security of supply and demand important for the economies of energy consuming and producing countries?

13.  What is the transit countries position in regard to the concept of energy security?

14.  What does the future of common concept of energy security depend on?


Task 3. Scan the text again and be ready to speak on the aspects below:

1. The elements of the expanded concept of energy security.

2. Relation of energy poverty to energy security (domestic and international aspects).

3. The components of universal core principles of energy security listed in the G8 Declaration.

4. The importance of the notion of security of demand for a common concept of energy security.

5. The basics of a common concept of international energy security.

6. The role of security of demand and supply for the producing and importing countries respectively.




Task 1.Find in the text all possible word combinations with the following words:

Security, energy, diversification, supply, demand, transit

Task 2.Find definitions of the following terms and concepts in a monolingual dictionary and translate the terms into Russian: 

energy security; energy supply; energy poverty; energy subsidies; vertical integration

Task 3. Match the words from columns A and B to make up collocations. Give their Russian equivalents.

1. environmental and social 2. fossil 3. energy 4. energy 5. supply 6. to meet 7. energy 8. to fall 9. energy 10. guaranteed 11. fixed 12. vertical 13. supply 14. rent a) supplies b) short c) challenges d) sustainability e) offtake f) integration g) pricing h) sources i) expansion j) sharing k) market l) security m) subsidies n) fuels

Task 4. Give Russian equivalents of the following word-combinations from the text:

1. non-affordability

2. renewable development

3. risk factors to energy security

4. stable and affordable energy flows

5. alleviate, energy poverty

6. security of demand

7. transparency and predictability of the marketing

8. common principles of energy security

9. international energy cooperation

10. world energy exchange participants

11. ensuring sustainable socio-economic development

12. common concept of energy security

13. major energy consuming countries

14. to satisfy energy demand

15. alternative energy sources

16. security enhancement

17. Reliable supplies of energy

18. energy security of transit

Task 5. Find in the text English equivalents of the following word combinations:

1. справедливая цена

2. недостаточноеинвестирование

3. подход к энергетической безопасности, учитывающий проблемы изменения климата

4. приуменьшать значение

5. ценовая доступность энергетических потоков

6. система социального обеспечения

7. решать как проблему национальной энергетической безопасности

8. бесперебойность энергопоставок

9. диверсификация спроса и предложения на энергоносители

10. неделимость понятия устойчивой глобальной энергетической безопасности

11. надежная и бесперебойная поставка

12. страны-производители, страны транзита и страны-потребители энергоносителей

13. потребление энергии от первичных источников

14. накопление запасов

15. доходы от экспорта

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