Activity 10. Give examples of the following software types. Add other types of -ware that you know: 

1. shareware
2. software
3. freeware
4. adware
5. groupware
6. spyware
7. malware

Activity 11. Describe a typical program interface, its components and characteristics.

Activity 12. Name some reasons why software should be updated. Illustrate these reasons with examples from your own experience.

Activity 13. Arrange the software layers below in a descending order from top to bottom; comment on the functionality of each software layer:

Operating system

Application software





Activity 14. Say what types of application software given below you have installed in your computer or smart phone:

1. documentation software

2. graphics software

3. presentation software

4. file management software

5. education and training software

6. entertainment software

7. accounting and finance software

Activity 15. Write a paragraph on software compatibility by covering such aspects as: definition, importance, types and examples.


1 What is the logical relationship between the concepts “–core - periphery”: a) general and specific b) cause and effect c) method and purpose d) contrast
2 What is the logical relationship between the concepts “application software – graphics software”: a) general and specific b) cause and effect c) method and purpose d) part and whole
3 Software that is bunched together to make a complete set is known as (a/n)___. a) groupware b) package d) adware d) utility
4 Software designed to facilitate collective working by a number of different users is known as (a/n)___. a) groupware b) spyware d) adware d) shareware
5 Software that is available free of charge and often distributed informally for evaluation, after which a fee may be requested for continued use is known as___. a) malware b) spyware d) adware d) shareware
6 An activity or piece of work which CPU has to perform is known as ___. a) thread b) task c) script d) function
7 ___ is the most basic level or core of an operating system, responsible for resource allocation, file management, and security. a) kernel b) utility c) periphery d) accessory
8 All of these are types of utilities EXCEPT FOR: a) presentation b) maintenance c) disc compression d) setup
9 MS Word, Excel, Power Point are examples of ___ . a) applications software b) widgets c) utilities d) OS
10 All of these are interface components EXCEPT FOR: a) window b) menu c) driver d) icon
11 Mark the odd word: a) design b) architect c) format d) layout
12 Mark the odd word: a) design b) construct c) layout d) architect
13 The queries can be framed using an ______ version of the existing Database Assistance tool.  a) updated b) update c) updater d) updating
14 All of these collocate with the adjective “desktop” EXCEPT FOR: a) publishing b) computer c) application d) cluster
15 The text extended ____ the edge of the window. a) from b) beyond c) behind d) after
16 All of these are types of application software EXCEPT FOR: a) graphics software b) presentation software c) spreadsheet software d) desktop software
17 Spyware and adware differ mostly by their ___. a) size b) programming language c) purpose d) price
18 For further details please contact the Institute for ___Language Studies. a) Applicable b) Applicative c) Applied d) Applicational
19 This is the standard way of ___ data in your program. a) installing b) embedding c) introducing d) inserting
20 Everyone should be able to design a standard Web page in minutes using the point and click type tools for___ text, graphics and sound. a) installing b) introducing c) encapsulating d) inserting


Term Definition Usage
1 Account (n) a record or statement of financial expenditure; the means by which a user can access a computer system; an Internet-based entity owned by or assigned to a specific user, but stored in an organization   ~ name/password/access/balance/ restriction/manager/policy/number/ status/ID; administrative/computer/ disabled/user/group/guest/local ~; account (v): ~ for sth, take into ~, on ~ of; on this ~; accountability (n): password ~, accountable (n): ~ to sb; (adv); accounting (n): ~ period/control/data system/device/ machine/management/software
2 Anonymity (n) the state of being purposely unknown, concealing one’s identity processor ~; anonym (n); anonymous (adj): ~ variable/letter/writer/server/ surfing/user;  Cf. pseudonym, alias 
3 Avatar (n) visual manifestation of a person or idea; a movable icon representing a person in cyberspace or virtual reality graphics an ~ of selflessness, account/colorful ~; choose/change an ~; syn. incarnation, embodiment
4 Block (v) put an obstacle in the way; keep a troublesome user out of one’s mentions and send them an explicit signal that one wants to have nothing to do with them ~ a(n) file/software/account/site/ mobile phone/network/anonymous user/abusing message/signal; block (n): ~ algebra/method/code; ~ of code/flats/shares; building/ control/data/memory/message/queue storage ~; blockage (n): manual/mechanical ~, the ~ factor; blocked (adj), blocker (n), blockout (n); syn. barrier, obstacle, impediment, hindrance;  hinder, ban ant. permit, give access, allow
5 Blog (n) web + log  a site maintained by an individual or a business with regular entries of commentary, descriptions of events, or other material such as graphics or video create/maintain/add content to/ contribute to a ~, a ~ client/host/-hosting; corporate/company/ news/ business ~; blogger (n): popular/notorious ~; (micro)blogging (n): the art of ~; syn. online journal   Cf. splog (n)=(spam+blog)
6 Bookmark (n) a strip of leather, card, etc., used to mark one's place in a book; a record of the address of a file, Internet page, or other data enabling quick access by a user create/delete/share/follow a ~, a ~ list; bookmarker (n); bookmarking (n): clever/frequent/individual ~; syn. clip, holder, marker
7 Browse (v) survey goods for sale in a leisurely and casual way; read or survey (data files) via a network ~ around the store/through the newspaper; ~ the web/web pages; browse (adj): a ~ list/mode; browser (n): web/popular/heavy ~, ~ interface; browsing (n): web/easy/computer ~; browsable (adj); syn.  surf
8 Cast (v) throw something forcefully; cause (light or shadow) to appear on a surface; arrange and present in a specified form or style ~ a(n) smile/net/anchor; ~ back/aside/down/away; ~ doubts/lots; casting (n): life ~; cast (n): web/broad/pod/milti/vod ~; syn. emit, put on air
9 Clickbait (n) enticing readers to click through to the full story with a misleading or sensationalist headline, usually with the goal of generating page views and advertising revenue ~ headlines/titles/news; clickbaiting (n): engage in ~
10 CTR (abbr) Clickthrough rate a common method of reporting on the number of people who have viewed a message or a piece of content and clicked on an ad or a link increase/decrease/raise/lower/boost the ~; high/low ~
11 Cookie (n) a sweet biscuit; a small identifier file placed on a user’s computer by a Web site, which logs information about the user and their previous/current visits ~ data/file/information/sheet/ verification; ~-enabled browser; delete/steal/spy/create (automatically)/enable/disable/allow/switch on (off) ~s
12 Content(s) (n) sng.: a state of satisfaction; pl.: the material dealt with in a speech, literary work, etc. as distinct from its form or style; information made available by a website or another electronic medium  low fat ~; online ~ providers; be ~ with sth; ~ oneself with sth; time of ~; contentless (adj); contented (adj): feel ~;~ -based coding/information retrieval; ~ -driven document; ~ analysis/decoder /management/filtering/provider ; ~s of a book; table of ~ s; the ~s page/list/directory/ dictionary; ~s of a file/data stream/message; block/ provide/create/show/restrict the ~s ant. form
13 Community (n) a group of people living together in one place, especially one practicing common ownership; a web society uniting people with the same interests, social values and or other particular characteristics the international/European/virtual/ research/information/online/user/AI ~; ~ service/center/college/facilities /health service/worker; syn. society, group
14 Creep (v) move slowly and carefully in order to avoid being heard or noticed; spend an extended period of time looking through someone’s profiles, photos, and videos on social media ~ up to sth/forward/back/slowly; creeping (adj); creeper (n): anonymous/irritating/fanatic/ addicted ~ syn. lurk Cf. follow
15 Crowdfunding (n) the act of soliciting donations or investments from online users who collectively raise money to support a cause or underwrite a project vast/urgent/quick/skillful ~ ; try/succeed in/raise money through/ resort to ~
16 Cyber (adj) relating to or characteristic of the culture of computers, information technology, and virtual reality  ~ age/space/warfare/ crime/life/criminal/offence/theft/ cash/culture/mail/café/sport/ terrorism/citizen/phobia/security/ slacker/speak/squatting/stalking; cybernated (adj): ~ humanity; cybernation (n): of the world; cybernaut (n); cybernetic (adj): ~ approach/control/machine/model/ system; cybernetics (n); cyborg (n); syn. virtual
17 E- (pfx) indicating the use of electronic data transfer in cyberspace, especially through the Internet ~-mail/book/journal/commerce/ banking/learning/cash/zine/crime/ literacy/business/culture/government/library/payment/publishing/voting
18 Emoticon (n) Emotion + icon a representation of a facial expression such as a smile or a frown, formed by various combinations of keyboard characters and used in electronic communications to convey the writer's feelings or intended tone  a(n) strange/(in)appropriate/ (ir)relevant/funny/angry/vertical/ horizontal/sticker ~; send/attach/add/choose an ~; syn. smiley
19 FAQ (acr)Frequently asked questions a text file containing a list of questions and answers relating to a particular subject, esp. the one giving basic information for users of an Internet newsgroup publish/consult/ignore/look through/find the answer in ~; Cf. FAQL (frequently asked question list)
20 Feed (v) frequently updated content subscription to which allows to read the latest posts or watch the newest videos on a computer or any portable device latest/abusing/parallel ~; web/news/events/line/power ~; (un)subscribe to a ~
21 Forum (n) a meeting or medium where ideas and views on a particular issue can be exchanged; an online discussion site a(n) discussion/international ~; join/provide a ~ for sb/sth; post sth on a ~; World Telecommunication ~; Independent Software Developers ~;  pl. fora syn. conference, newsgroup
22 Geotagging (n) the process of adding location-based metadata to media such as photos, video or online maps automatic/precise/user’s ~; use/ resort to/refer to/be guided by ~
23 Link (n) a relationship between two things or situations; a reference in an electronic document that lets a user display or activate another document or program; a reference to data that the reader can directly follow by clicking perma/hyper/data/cable/fiber-optic/implicit /logical/transmission/ transport ~; follow/click on/build/ manage/control a ~; a ~ access/address/control/error/file; linked (adj): a ~ list/document/ communication; link-up (n): a live satellite ~; linkable (adj):a  ~ cycle; linkability (n): ~ of devices/equipment; linkage (n): external/internal ~; syn. tie, connection, (cross-) reference, Cf. liason
24 Log (v) enter (an incident or fact) in the log of a ship or aircraft or in another systematic record; go through the procedures to begin (or conclude) using a computer system ~ in to/out of a server; log (n): a ~ command/entry/file/journal/ message/server; logger (n): site/internet ~; logged (adj): ~ data/drive; logger (n): data/ multichannel/system ~, ~ machine; logging (n): error/executive/failure/ machine time ~, ~ printer/unit; login (n): user /remote/automatic ~; ~ name/password/directory/ procedure/prompt/command file;  disable a ~; syn. log on/off
25 Mail (n) letters and parcels sent by post; electronic mail e-/postal/snail/incoming/daily/direct ~; ~ box/edition/filter/program/ system/server/list/bot/man; send/order by ~; check/receive/redirect/delete/sort out the ~; mailable (adj); mailing (adj): ~ list/list manager/processor/program; syn. listserver (listserv)
26 Meme (n) an element of a culture or system of behavior that may be passed from one individual to another by imitation; an image with a text, video or link describing a thought, idea, joke, or concept to be shared online interesting/video/colorful/funny/ absurd ~; spread/track/send/ post a ~; memetic (adj): ~ algorithm/code/spread
27 Media (n) media (pl.): the main means of mass communication (television, radio, and newspapers) regarded collectively; medium (sng.): a means by which sth is communicated or expressed; a particular storage container for computer files, such as  magnetic tape or a disc (pl.) civic/social/mass/local/ broadcasting/multi/interactive/ network/communication ~, ~ art/event/ library/studies/processor/-specific; ~ access/control/adapter/computer/ frequency; ~-capacity/-run/-sized;  (sng) information-carrying/input/output/ interactive/magnetic/recording/ storage/transfer (non)volatile ~; the ~ of instruction syn. means
28 Monitor (v)   observe and check the progress or quality of sth over a period of time; observe some activities and measure them against benchmark policies and rules ~ activity/function/signal; monitor (n): black and white/color/CRT/ refreshed/ enhanced RGB/system/ flat-screen/LCD/LED/thin-film/VGA/TV ~; ~ amplifier/display/ mode/signal/switch; monitored (adj); monitoring (n): call/low-battery/performance/security threat/heat/pulse/remote access ~, ~ of production/ performance/tool breakage; ~ equipment/technology/ window; syn. control, check, audit
29 Navigate (v) guide (a vessel or vehicle) over a specified route, especially with difficulty, by using instruments or maps; move around a website, the Internet, etc. a vessel/around the Web/a car through the traffic; be ~ed by the stars; ~ skillfully; ~; navigable (adj): ~ path/waterway; navigating (adj): ~ officer; navigation (n): electronic ~, ~ aids/air radar/area/button/canal/ computer/control/electronics/ facilities/instrument/kit/support/ satellite; navigational (adj): database/guidance/parameter/ query; navigator (n): television/driver’s/GSM ~  
30 Password (v) a secret word or a phrase that must be used to gain admission to a place; a string of characters that allows sb access to a computer system generate/change/supply/enter a ~; multi (single)-user/one-time ~, ~ ageing/authentication/changing/ identification/logout/security/ verification; ~-protected; Cf. identification, login
31 Post (v) send by post; display (a notice) in a public place; make (information) available on the Internet; send (a message) to an Internet bulletin board or newsgroup ~ a message/status; ~ on the wall/Internet/site; ~ in sb’s blog; post (n): place a ~, a ~ bag/boy/card/ box/exchange/office; postal (adj): ~ address/code/service/transaction; send/receive by ~;  provocative/clever/funny ~; syn. mail, correspondence, public message Cf. poste restante
32 Site (n) an area of ground on which a town, building, or monument is constructed; (short for website) an Internet location that maintains one or more web pages do sth on ~; ~ visits; a landfill ~; appear/post on the ~; close/block/ban/develop/design/ control/address/administer/compromise a ~; ~ admin/control/database/ development/license/name/ safety/server/testing;  a spyware ~; syn. place, location, spot
33 Spam (n) irrelevant or inappropriate messages sent on the Internet to a large number of newsgroups or users for advertizing purposes send/receive/delete/block/report/ avoid ~; ~ filter/bot/buster/victim; spammer (n): annoying/irritating/ advertising ~; spamming (n): ~ of mailboxes/accounts; spamster (n);   syn. junk mail
34 Status (n) relative social or professional position; the current condition a device or a user is in ~ of the person/bill, ~ bar/error/ control/monitoring/indicator/message/report; update/post/ delete/change/announce/ maintain/preserve/restore the ~; availability/(in)active/current ~; statutory (adj): ~ order/instrument; syn. state, position Cf. status quo
35 Stream (n) a long, narrow strip of material used as a decoration or symbol; a continuous flow of data or instructions, typically one having a constant or predictable rate TV/radio/video/information/ communication/file/input/output/ manager/mode/flow ~; ~ of data; instruction/media ~; stream (v); streamed (adj): ~ content/students; streamer (n): a plastic/party/multi-coloured ~ ; decorate/adorn with ~s; digital recording ~; streaming (adj): TV/video ~, audio ~; syn.  poster, slogan, flood
36 Trace (v) follow or mark the course or position of sth; find or discover sth by investigation ~ a(n) signal/person/activity/actions; ~ sth back; trace (n): electrical/path/program/return/ reverse/signal ~; ~ analysis/ filter/interval/leakage/method/ scheduling; traceable (adj): barely ~; traceability (n); traced (adj): ~ profile; traceless (adj): ~ matrix/operator; tracer (n): ~ activity; syn. track
37 Thread (n) a long, thin strand of fibers used in sewing or weaving; a topic or subtopic within an electronic discussion group or forum; a programming structure or process linking a number of separate elements concurrently executed in multithreading execution/discussion/main/single ~, ~ group/ID/ package/time/detector(ion)/ failure/formation; start/close/ continue/limit a ~; thread (v): ~ a needle; threaded (adj): ~ file; threading (n): multi ~, ~ facility/tool  
38 Virtual not physically existing as such but made by software to appear to do so; an online computer-simulated space ~world/reality/function/address/ business/call/network/channel/ community/computer/connection/ database/device/directory/disk/library/meeting/memory/server/storage; virtualization (n): ~ engine/ implementation/management/ platform/software/technique/ technology; virtualize (v); virtually (adv): ~ impossible; virtuality (n); syn. cyber ant. real, actual
39 Web World Wide Web a widely used information system on the Internet enabling the user to search for information by moving from one document to another ~ conferencing/casting/publishing/ browsing/programming; ~ page/address/application/ browser/designer/document/host/ interface/infrastructure/server/space/cast; ~-based administration/ email/solution; syn. the Internet, global network Cf. webinar, web-master, webcam, webisode, webzine
40 Wiki (from the Hawaiian “wiki wiki” which means “super fast”) a website or database developed collaboratively by a community of users, allowing any user to add and edit content ~pedia/books; media ~; ~leaks Cf. encyclopedia


1. Oxford Dictionary of English, 3rd Edition. - Oxford University Press Inc., 2010

2. Англо-русский словарь по вычислительной технике и программированию. - 8-е изд., испр. и доп. – ABBYY. - Масловский Е.К., 2008.

3. Англо-русский толковый словарь по вычислительной технике, Интернету и программированию - 8-е изд., испр. и доп. – Э. М. Пройдаков, Л. А. Теплицкий, 2011.

4. Англо-русский словарь по телекоммуникациям. - «РУССО». - Александров А.В., 2004. 




Activity 1. Give synonyms:

1. block
2. community
3. emoticon
4. forum
5. link
6. monitor
7. WWW

Activity 2. Give antonyms:

1. virtual
2. block
3. log in
4. snail mail
5. implicit
6. external
7. anonymous

Activity 3. Word family. Fill in the missing words of the same root where possible:

Noun Verb Adjective Adverb

Activity 4. Complete the tables with words that form strong partnerships with the target vocabulary units:

Target vocabulary unit Noun


Verb Target vocabulary unit

a blog

Target vocabulary unit Noun


Adjective/Noun Target vocabulary unit


Verb Target vocabulary unit


Target vocabulary unit Noun


Target vocabulary unit Adjective/Noun


Activity 5. Match the given terms with their definitions:

1. anonymity A. a small identifier file placed on a user’s computer by a Web site, which logs information about the user and their previous/current visits for the use of the site next time the user makes contact
2. avatar B. a location connected to the Internet that maintains one or more web pages
3. clickbait C. the state of being purposely unknown, concealing one’s identity
4. CTR D. a text file containing a list of questions and answers relating to a particular subject
5. cookie E. a movable icon representing a person in cyberspace or virtual reality graphics
6. FAQ F. a common metric for reporting on the number of people who viewed a message or piece of content and clicked on the ad or link
7. meme G. an image with text, video or link describing a thought, idea, joke, or concept to be shared online
8. site H. web content with a misleading or sensationalist headline that entices readers to click through to the full story, usually with the goal of generating page views and advertising revenue

Activity 6. Insert prepositions

1. Take ______ account the compatability of the new software.

2. Students account ____ the vast majority of customers.

3. A dedicated blogger contributes _____ his blog every day.

4. He was browsing _____ the morning newspaper to find her announcement.

5. The girl was found as she left a reference _____ geotagging

6. He called the system administrator, as it was impossible to log ______ the server.

7. Goods ordered _____ postal mail are likely to be damaged or broken.

Activity 7. State the type of logical relations between the following concepts:

Concepts Type of logical relations
1. a cookie – spying A. general and specific
2. trace –track B. cause and effect
3. mail – postal mail C. contrast
4. virtual – real D. equivalence
5. a post – a site E. part and whole
6. cookie - tracking   F. method and purpose
7. www – site  

Activity 8. Decode Noam Chomsky’s saying about the Internet and comment on it:

Activity 9. Explain the difference between the following concepts using the Venn diagram below:

emoticon – meme
blog – site
wikipedia - encyclopedia
log- blog
www – the Internet – cyberspace
avatar – icon



Activity 10. Say what the following is used for:

1. bookmark
2. FAQ
3. e-mail
4. password
5. status
6. thread
7. account

Activity 11. Outline the major advantages and/or disadvantages of:

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