Activity 13. Speak on the latest trends in the hardware system development



Activity 14. Brainstorm the current issues of e-waste nowadays. What makes it hazardous? What are the possible solutions?

Activity 15. Write a paragraph commenting on the statement in Activity 8 above.

TEST TEST1d 2a 3c 4c 5a 6c 7d 8d 9b 10c 11a 12b 13d 14d 15c 16d 17c 18c 19a 20c

d 1 What is the logical relationship between the concepts “fix - damage”: a) general and specific b) cause and effect c) method and purpose d) contrast
a 2 What is the logical relationship between “output device” and “printer”: a) general – specific b) method – purpose c) part – whole d) equivalence
c 3 What is the logical relationship between “CPU” and “mother board”: a) general – specific b) method – purpose c) part – whole d) equivalence
c 4 The information was held ___ computer for regular operations. a) into b) in c) on d) to
a 5 A piece of fiberglass or other material upon which an array of computer chips is mounted is known as a ___ . a) mother board b) transistor c) card d) board
c 6 All of these are input devices EXCEPT FOR: a) webcamb) keyboard c) printer d) mouse
d 7 All of these are output devices EXCEPT FOR: a) video card b) projector c) sound card d) webcam
d 8 Mark the odd word: a) break-up b) break off c) breakdown d) break in
b 9 All of these collocate with the word “process” EXCEPT FOR: a) information b) password c) data d) output
c 10 The period of time when sth is not in operation, especially as a result of a malfunction is called ___time. a) up b) on c) down d) over
a 11 Volatile memory, contrary to ____-volatile memory requires power to maintain the stored information. a) non-b) un c) im d) in
b 12 All of these are synonymous to the word “maintain” EXCEPT FOR: a) keep b) regain c) sustain d) preserve
d 13 All of these can follow the noun “printer” EXCEPT FOR: a) cable b) port c) ribbon d) board
d 14 The decoder at the other end converts the sequence of beeps back ___ a code which identifies the caller. a) to b) in c) on d) into
c 15 The manufacturing ___ is relatively simple a) procedures b) proceeding c) process d) proceedings
d 16 Mark the odd word: a) rotary b) rotative c) rotatory d) rotation
c 17 The broken machine needs ____. a) despair b) compare c) repair d) impair
c 18 That accident involved a truck with ____ brakes. a) fault b) faultless c) faulty d) faultness
a 19 The company claims to have reduced machine ___. a) downtime b) time c) uptime d) time out
c 20 The part of a computer in which operations are controlled and executed is known as (a)___. a) Bluetooth b) Wi-Fi c) CPU d) server

Module 5. SOFTWARE

Term Definition Usage
1 Add (v) join or put sth in(to) sth else so as to increase the size, number, or amount ~ a(n) function/program/text/image; ~ on program/weight; addition (n): in ~ to; additive (n); added (adj); additional (adj); syn. augment ant. subtract, deduct
2 Application (n) a formal request to an authority; a set of one or more programs designed to carry out operations for a specific purpose which are unable to run on their own and depend on the system software to execute documentation/graphics/presentation /spreadsheet and statistical/data management/file management/ information and reference software/ education and training/entertainment /accounting and finance/business ̴ ; ~ of force; develop/set up/uninstall /update an ~; apply (v): ~ for a job/post/position; applied (adj): ~ science/mathematics; (non)applicable (adj); applicational (adj)
3 BIOS (abbr) Basic Input/Output System the program code and data stored in the permanent memory and used for booting process ~ setup; embedded/flash ~; display the ~ information
4 Boot (v) kick sth hard in a specified direction; turn on a computer and get into the operating system ~ a(n) accelerator/application/band/computer/code/disc/drive/menu/sector/virus; booting (n): the ~ drive/environment /procedure/ process/sequence/stage; bootable (adj): a ~ CD/drive/diskette; reboot (v); syn. reset, (re)start
5 Catalogue (n) an itemized list of titles, course offerings, or articles for exhibition or sale, including descriptive information or illustrations; a publication containing such a list a ~ code/of samples/name; enter in/make a ~ of; catalogue (v): ~ business/buyers/by authors; cataloguing (n): ~ problem; catalogued (adj), cataloguer (n);  syn. archive, directory
6 Cluster (n) a group of similar things or people positioned or occurring closely together; a group of connected computers; the smallest managed section of a hard drive that holds a file cluster (adj): ~ address/administrator/ administration/allocation/acceleration/bomb; form/organize ~(s); clustered (adj): ~ access/database/index; syn. array, bunch
7 Compatible (adj) able to exist or occur together without problems or conflict; matching the previous versions of software, operating systems or hardware devices backward/downward~;  ~ application/browser/circuit/blood; syn. adaptable, appropriate, consistent; (in)compatibility (n); ant. incompatible
8 Context (n) the circumstances that form a setting for an event, statement, or idea, in terms of which it can be fully understood consider/examine/look at/see/ understand/view sth in the ~ of; general/larger/overall/wider/ educational/regional/historical/cultural ~; define/describe the ~; contextual (adj): ~ analysis/approach; context (adj): ~ switch/menu/area/ analysis/activation; syn. background, setting ant. foreground
9 Desktop (adj) (of office appliances, such as photocopiers and printers) which can be fitted on top of a desk ~ publishing/computer/apparatus/ computer/access/application/analysis/ environment/accessories/ configuration; ant. portable/wearable (computer)
10 Design (v) decide upon the look and functioning of (a building, garment, or other object), by making its detailed drawing ~ a book/building/curriculum; redesign (v); design (n): ~ approval/ arrangement/automation; designer (n): ~ fashion/clothes /label/aids;  syn. architecture, layout
11 Driver (n) a person who drives a vehicle; a program that controls the operation of a device such as a printer or a scanner a(n) device/hardware/software/ upgrade /test ~; (un)install/update a ~; drive (v): ~ a car/vehicle/at sth; ~ innovation; driverless (adj); driving (adj, n): the main/principal ~ force of/behind sth; ~ license, reckless ~
12 Embed (v) fix (an object) firmly and deeply in a surrounding mass; incorporate sth (a text, a code, a picture) within the body of a file or document ~ a(n) channel/file/chip/structure/ function/system/operation/ technology/software in(to) sth; embedding (n), embeddable (adj), embedded (adj): ~ OS;  syn. enclose, insert, incorporate
13 Emulate (v) match or surpass (a person or achievement), typically by imitation; reproduce the function or action of a different computer, software system, etc. ~ a sound/action/design/environment/ one’s father/sb’s hairstyle/sb’s success; emulation (n), emulator (n), emulative (adj); syn. imitate, copy, follow sb’s suit  
14 Encapsulate (v) enclose sth in or as if in a capsule; provide an interface for a piece of software or hardware to allow or simplify access for the user ~ a layer/information/program/code; encapsulation (n), encapsulated (adj)  
15 Function (n) an activity that is natural to or the purpose of sb/sth; a basic task of a computer, especially one that corresponds to a single instruction from the user built-in/system/value/virtual/ annual/social ~; fulfill/perform/attend a ~; ~ procedure/editor/reference/ template; function (v): ~ as a robot/ normally; (non/dis)functional (adj), functionally (adv), functionality (n); syn. feature, activity, operation  
16 Icon (n) sb or sth regarded as a representative symbol or as worthy of veneration; a symbol or graphic representation on a screen of a program, option, or window pop/rock/fashion ~; ~ bar/control/ editor/-based/-driven; program/document ~; create/change an ~; iconic (adj): ~ structure/path/interface /model;   syn. picture, symbol
17 Implement (v) put a decision, plan, agreement, etc. into effect  ~ a(n) scenario/action/plan/ agreement; implementation (n): program ~; ~ chart/file/defect/error/ pattern; implement (n): garden ~ (s); implementer(or) (n); implementable (adj); implementability (n); syn. achieve, carry out
18 Install (v) place or fix equipment or machinery in position ready for use; copy all of the necessary files to run a software program on a computer   ~ (a) software/driver/process; installer (n); installing (n); installed (adj): ~ equipment/capacity/base; installation (n): ~ aids/company/costs/ directions/instruction/manual/process/program/tool/wizard; installability (n); installable (adj): ~ device/driver/ RAM; syn. put in place, set ant. uninstall
19 Interface (n) a point where two systems, subjects, organizations, etc. meet and interact; a device or program enabling a user to communicate with a computer system/program/graphical/object/user/functional ~; ~ adapter/agent/area/ card/channel/connection/ element/design/functionality/kit/ protocol; interface (v): ~ with another system or person, interfaced (adj); interfacial (adj): ~ connection/failure/ joint/resistance/tension; interfacing (n): ~ capability/circuit/protocol/ software; syn. interact with, connect with; Cf. GUI (Graphical User Interface) WIMP (Windows, Icons, Menus, Pointer)
20 Iteration (n) repetition of a process or utterance; repetition of a function or process in a computer program; a new version of a piece of computer hardware or software ~ cycle/algorithm/function/factor/ index/loop/mode; iterate (v): ~ a(n) operation/function/ process; iterative (adj): ~ algorithm/analysis/approach/ code/ calculation/circuit/formula/ function/ filter/method/network/ procedure/ technique; reiterate (v); iterating (adj); iterated (adj): ~ code/form/graph/operator; syn. repetition
21 Kernel (n) the central or most important part of sth; the most basic level or core of an operating system, responsible for resource allocation, file management, and security ~ debugger/call/function/mode/driver; ~ of security/action/integral; program/real-time/separable/expanded /security ~; address/define a ~; syn. center, core ant. periphery
22 Launch (v) set (a newly built ship or boat) afloat for the first time with an official ceremony; send (a missile, satellite, or spacecraft) on its course; start or set in motion (an activity or program) ~ a campaign/program/vessel/ warship/rocket/spaceship; launch (n): a ~ angle/power/team/ window; launcher (n): a waveguide ~; launching (n): a ~ pad/basin/fiber/rail/ site/tower; launchpad (n); launchway (n): ~ operation; syn. start, commence ant.  end, finish
23 License (n) an agreement that allows sb or sth to use a service or perform an action as long as they agree to the terms provided therein obtain/revoke a ~; grant a ~ to sb; ~ agreement/fee/key/contract/holder; ~ -free; shrink-wrap/group/ corporate ~; licensed (adj): ~ software/product/ dealer/party; licensee (n); licenser (or) (n); licensing (adj): ~ procedure/scheme, service; syn. certificate, warrant, permit
24 Menu (n) the food available or to be served in a restaurant or at a meal; a list from which to choose; a list of commands or facilities displayed on screen icon-driven/quick access/drop-down/context/pull-down/pop-up/application/feature/cascading ~; ~ box/button/access/choice/ entry/key/-driven/-guided/type/bar; click on/choose from/change the ~
25 OS (abbr) Operating System  the software that supports a computer's basic functions, such as scheduling tasks, executing applications, and controlling peripherals ~ failure/design/kernel/management; server/user/home edition/virtual/ multiuser/multitasking/ multiprocessing/mobile ~; (un)install/update/change/reconfigure/be compatible with an ~
26 Package (n) an object or group of objects wrapped in paper or packed in a box; software that is bunched together to make a complete set ~ advertising/contract/deal/file/ holiday/module/offer/paper/tour; ~ of subcontract works; build/create a ~; packaged (adj): ~ software/system/ unit; packager (n); packaging (n): ~ density/film/machine/process/robot;  syn. kit, parcel, container
27 Pointer (n) a long, thin piece of metal on a scale or dial which moves to indicate a figure or position; a movable indicator on a computer screen identifying the point that will be affected by input from the user ~ device/instrument/operation/ token/tool/-driven/-linked; screen/control/base/vertical/ address ~; point (n): boiling/freezing/hot ~; bring up/raise/concede/yield/cover/discuss/ emphasize/stress/underscore a ~; speak to the ~; at a ~; on this ~; point (v): ~ out problems/errors; pointless (adj): ~ argument;  syn. cursor, arrow, issue
28 Recover (v) return to a normal state of health, mind, or strength; stabilize or take a computer or electronic device back to a point when it was stable; restore a deleted file ~ command/function/from an error; recovery (n): system ~, ~ bug/control/ data/factor/node/period/process/rate/ work/time; recoverer (n): program ~; recovered (adj): ~ file/heat/oil/signal; recovering (n): ~ time/probability; (ir)recoverable (adj): ~ error/failure/ reserves; (ir)recoverability (n); syn. reclaim, regain, restore
29 Release (v) allow or enable to escape from confinement; set free; make (a film, recording, or other product) available to the public ~ a film/disc/book/button/prisoner; release (n): ~ date/key/node, ~ of pressure/information/fluid; released (adj): ~ capacity/state/version; releaser (n); syn. (set) free, let go, issue
30 Script (n) handwriting as distinct from print; an automated series of instructions carried out in a specific order; a small non-compiled program written for a scripting language or the command interpreter ~ file/language/font; command/machine/writer ~; (re)write/create/compose/delete/edit a ~; scripting (n): ~ engine/ programming language; inscription (n), inscribe (v)
31 Software (n) the programs and other operating information used by a computer trial/open source/bundled/commercial/ edutainment/public domain/ encryption/licensed ~; (un)install/configure/release/maintain/design/debug/distribute/implement/ manage/control/test ~; ~ bug/cache/ command/component/configuration /debugging/design/distribution/ engineering/failure/implementation/ life-cycle/management/ piracy/publisher/ utility; ~-based controller/design; syn. program ant. hardware
32 Specification (n) an act of identifying sth precisely or of stating a precise requirement; description of an invention accompanying an application for a patent ~ change/deficiency/error/limit/ requirements/review/statement/writer; ~ of contract/cargo/tolerances; specify (v): ~ the(a) needs/conditions/ offer/diagnosis/extension; specificity (n): ~ of test/construction; specified (adj): ~ behavior/criteria/constraints/ conditions/load/number/quality/ temperature/time; syn. stipulation, parameter,  condition
33 System (n) a complex whole; a set of things working together as parts of a mechanism or an interconnecting network; a group of related programs or hardware units or both, especially when dedicated to a single application ~ requirements/engineer/interface/ analyst/area/approach/architecture/ board/bus/code/console/control/crash/debugging/design/disc/element/failure/library/memory/menu/registry; (re)set/start/boot/(un)install/update/ change/(re)configure/access a ~; application/ computer/back-up/binary/ control/ error-correcting/detecting/ information ~; syn.  scheme, structure ant.  chaos, disorder
34 Task (n) a piece of work to be done or undertaken; an activity or a piece of work which CPU has to perform, usually as part of a larger project active/current ~; perform/set/ fulfill/complete/carry out/ cancel/abandon/undertake/ assign/entrust sb with a ~; ~-based approach/allocation/ activation/assignment/group/list/ plan/queue; ~ scheduler/priority/ queue/register/table/bar; syn. assignment, undertaking Cf. multitasking
35 Update (v) make sth more modern or up-to-date; download a software file that contains refreshed information and various fixes ~ a status/software/file; update (n): news/automatic/ manual/timely ~, ~ rate/time; updated (adj): ~ program/antivirus/file /database/information/version/sample; updater (n): table ~; updating (n): batch/file/memo/screen ~; syn.  modernize, renovate ant. outdated, out-of-date
36 Utility (n) the state of being useful, profitable, or beneficial; system software designed to help analyze, configure, optimize or maintain a computer public/debugging/disk compression/ maintenance/setup ~; ~ allocation/ area/core/computing/device/ equipment/function/kernel; (un)install/update/change a ~; public ~ies; utilize (v): ~ fully/partially; utilizable (adj): ~ waste; utilization (n): ~ coefficient/ factor/level/parameter/property/rate; utilized (adj); utilizer (n); syn. service Cf. recycle
37 Version (n) a particular form of sth differing in certain respects from an earlier form or other forms of the same type of thing; a particular release of a piece of computer software demo/beta/active/trial/professional/ crippled/licensed ~; ~ control/ management/tracking; release/copy a ~; versioning (n); syn. form, variant
38 Widget (n) an application, or a component of an interface that enables a user to perform a function or access a service; an additional feature or extension to a software program, OS GUI, or a web page, which enables additional features ~ library/set; un(install)/update/change /reconfigure a ~; syn. gizmo, apparatus, appliance, device
39 -ware (n) manufactured articles of a specified type; type of software share/demo/ad/group/spy/cripple/crap/ mal/free/stone/table/kitchen/metal ~; syn. commodity
40 Window (n) an opening in the wall or roof of a building or vehicle, to admit light or air; a framed area on a display screen for viewing information ~ control/frame/menu/space/width; ~-based OS; ~ of vulnerability; acceptance/contact/display/help/ hidden/graphics/pop-up/welcome/ active/alert/application ~; overlapping ~s; bring up a ~; extend beyond the edge of the ~; windowed (adj): ~ address/registers; windowing (n): ~ environment/software/system; windowless (adj): ~ photo-multiplication

1. New Oxford American Dictionary, 3rd Edition © 2010 by Oxford University Press Inc.

2. Oxford Dictionary of English, 3rd Edition © Oxford University Press 2010

3. Англо-русский словарь по вычислительной технике и программированию: 8-е изд., испр. и доп. - ABBYY. - Масловский Е.К., 2008

4. Англо-русский толковый словарь по вычислительной технике, Интернету и программированию (8 изд., испр. и доп.). - Э. М. Пройдаков, Л. А. Теплицкий, 2011.

5. Англо-русский словарь по телекоммуникациям. - «РУССО». - Александров А.В. – 2011.

 

 

 ACTIVITIES

Activity 1. Give synonyms:

1. boot
2. catalogue
3. design
4. embed
5. emulate
6. function
7. icon
8. implement

Activity 2. Give antonyms:

1. add
2. context
3. install
4. kernel
5. launch
6. recover
7. release
8. system

Activity 3. Word family. Fill in the missing words of the same root where possible:

Noun Verb Adjective Adverb
application      
    installable  
      iteratively
pointer      
  update    
    implemented  

Activity 4. Complete the tables with words that form strong partnerships with the target vocabulary units:

Target vocabulary unit Noun

 cluster

Target vocabulary unit Noun

desktop

Adjective Target vocabulary unit

interface

Verb Target vocabulary unit

software

Adjective Target vocabulary unit

utility

Target vocabulary unit Noun

specification

Adjective Target vocabulary unit

version

Activity 5. Match the given terms with their definitions:

1. shareware A. adjunct software that displays advertising while the program it is attached to is running
2. software B. software designed to facilitate collective working by a number of different users
3. freeware C. software that self-installs on computers and tracks the user's Internet use, mainly for marketing purposes
4. adware D. software that is available free of charge and often distributed informally for evaluation, after which a fee may be requested for continued use
5. groupware E. software specifically designed to disrupt or damage a computer system
6. spyware F. the programs and other operating information used by a computer
7. malware G. software that is available without any payment

Activity 6. Insert prepositions

  1. To work correctly, application softaware should be compatible ___ the operating system.
  2. The main driving force ____the technological progress is people’s laziness.
  3. The Microsoft Company granted a licensed software ____ the programmer who found a bug in the newly released Windows software.
  4. In every Microsoft Office application software there is a function to embed an image ___ the document.
  5. Click ______the drop-down menu to see all the options.
  6. The Word spellchecker will easily point _____errors in the document.
  7. Speak ___ the point, beacause we are pressed for time.

Activity 7. State the type of logical relations between the following concepts:

Concepts Type of logical relations
1. context – foreground A. general and specific
2. icon - interface B. contrast
3. application – graphics software C. equivalence
4. core - periphery D. part and whole
5. update – security E. method and purpose
6. incompatibility - failure F. cause and effect
7. Interface – GUI  

Activity 8. Decode Bill Gates’ saying about software and comment on it:

http://puzzlemaker.discoveryeducation.com/code/BuildCryptogram.asp

Activity 9. Explain the difference between the following concepts using the Venn diagram below:

GNU - closed source software
application software - utility
BIOS – OS
shareware - freeware
input – output
emulate – imitate - simulate
boot – reboot

 

 

 

 


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