I. Mark if the following statements: T) correspond to the   contents of the text; F) do not correspond to the contents of the text



1. Scott believed that people had good and sincere reasons for doing something.

2. He was eager to improve his life.

3. Three years ago he was convinced to get a new profession.

4. Scott entered the Long Beach College to study chemistry.

5. Dr. Rock was said to be an experienced and skillful teacher.

6. Dr. Rock thought the students of the college not to be intelligent enough.

7. The course itself influenced Scott greatly.

8. Having talked to the instructor, Scott changed his attitude to life.

9. Dr. Rock made his students feel responsible for their country.

10. Scott was the only person influenced by the instructor’s educational speech.

II. Multiple choice.

1. Unfulfilling job is

a) an interesting and well-paid one.

b) one which requires hard manual labour.

c) a dull and non-prospective one.

2. In Scott’s opinion, the replacement of some humane qualities took place because of

a) negative influence of the world.

b) people’s desire to improve their existence.

c) negative changes of a personality.

3. While studying in the college, Scott got interested in

a) the basics of the Constitution.

b) the needs of the community.

c) the political situation of his country.

4. Dr. Rock worked in the Long Beach City College because

a) he was paid well.

b) he wanted to improve the world.

c) he taught students how to succeed in their lives.

5. The most significant features of a real leader are

a) self-confidence and materialism.

b) biases and emotions.

c) honesty and common sense.

 6. To become a good leader you need

a) a great desire to become a public person.

b) a financial support of an influential person.

c) an interaction with an efficient person.

 

Text# 34 The History Of Fingerprints.

If you enjoy watching crime shows on TV, you know that fingerprints play a large role in identifying people. But, you might be surprised to find out that using fingerprints for identification is not a new science. In fact, it is very old — dating back at least as far as 1885-1913 B.C.E. In Babylon, when people agreed to a business contract, they pressed their fingerprints into the clay in which the contract was written. Thumbprints have also been found on clay seals from ancient China.

In 14th century Persia, which is now Iran, a government doctor recognized that all fingerprints are different. In 1684, a British doctor, Nehemiah Grew, spoke about the ridged surfaces of the fingers, hi 1686, a professor of anatomy(the study of the structure of the human body) named Marcello Malpighi, wrote about the ridges and loops in fingerprints. Malpighi's work was considered so important that a layer of skin found on the fingertips was named after him. This layer of skin is called the Malpighian layer. Although scientists had studied fingerprints, the value of fingerprinting in the identification of individuals did not become clear until later.

Sir William James Herschel is generally thought to be the first European to realize that fingerprints were uniqueto each person. In his work as chief magistrate in the Hoogly district in Jungipoor, India, Herschel asked people to put their handprints on contracts. Herschel believed that personal contact with the contracts made people more likely to honor their commitments, or to keep their promises. As he looked at more and more handprints, he began to see that all the handprints were different. He started to believe that fingerprints were unique, which means they are all different from each other, and permanent,which means that they do not ever change. To prove that they never change, Herschel kept track of his own fingerprints over his entire lifetime.

Dr. Henry Faulds, a British surgeon at a Japanese hospital, began studying the furrows (also called ridges) on fingertips in the 1870s. He published an article in a scientific journal about the use of fingerprints as a tool in identification. He also devised,or invented, a system of classifying fingerprints. He wrote Charles Darwin about his findings, but Darwin was getting too old to work on the findings. So, he promised to pass the information to his cousin, Sir Francis Galton. Using Henry Faulds's findings, Galton published a major book on classifying fingerprints based on arches, loops, and whorls. His work with Sir Edward R. Henry on fingerprint classification was the basis of a classification system which is still used by law enforcement agencies in English-speaking countries.

The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) now uses a variation of the Galton- Henry system. Although the use of fingerprinting in identification originatedin Britain, it has been developed in the United States. In 1924, two large fingerprint collections were combined to form the foundation of the Identification Division of the FBI. Within the Identification Division, the Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification Systems (IAFIS) can search and find fingerprints anywhere in the United States within thirty minutes. The IAFIS can compare results with automated fingerprint systems in countries around the world. The IAFIS has the fingerprints of more than 250 million people on file.

About one in six Americans has fingerprints on file with the FBI. But not all the fingerprints are related to criminal investigations. People need to have their fingerprints taken for many other reasons. People have their fingerprints taken for employment, licenses, and adoption. For example, when people want to work for the governments in classified, secret jobs, their fingerprints are checked to be sure they do not have a criminal background. When prospectiveparents adopt a child, their fingerprints are matched against those of all criminals for the safety of the child.

I. Answer the questions.

1. How were fingerprints used in ancient times?

2. What was written about the fingerprints in 1686?

3. How was the skin layer of the fingertips called?

4. Why did Sir William James Herschel ask people to put their fingerprints on contracts?

5. What was discovered by James Herschel?

6. How did Herschel prove that fingerprints were unchanging?

7. What did Dr. Henry Faulds do?

8. What does the surface of fingers consist of?

9. What is the basis of a classification system?

10. What country was considered to be the first to use fingerprints for identification?

11. How long does it take the IAFIS to find someone’s fingerprints?

12. What is the radius of people’s searching by fingerprints?

13. How many people are on file with the FBI today?

14. Why would a non-criminal have their fingerprints taken?

15. What job is called classified?

 

Text #35 Human Body.

Your body is made of trillions of tiny living things. They are called cells. There are 210 different kinds of cells in your body. Each kind of cell has a different shape. Each kind of cell is a different size. Each kind of cell has a different job. The same types of cells usually work together in groups. The groups are called tissues. More cells can be made when the cells split. They form more cells that are just like the parents.

Some of your cells are nerve cells. They are also called neurons. They carry signalsthrough your body. The signals are messages that tell your body to move. Your brain has about 100 billion neurons! The connections between neurons are called synapses. Each neuron has between 1,000 and 10,000 synapses. There are about one quadrillion synapses in your brain. That's 1,000,000,000,000,000 synapses in your brain! There are about 1 billion neurons in your spinal cord, the bundle of nerves that goes from your brain all the way down your back.

Some of your cells are red blood cells. They carry oxygen (O) through your body. They pick up carbon dioxide (CO2) and help your body get rid ofit. Your body wants to eliminate CO2 because it is a waste product. Blood also helps your body stay warm. Conversely, blood cools off your brain, because it gets very hot.

Some of your cells are white blood cells. The white blood cells help your body fight sickness. Some of the white blood cells, called T-cells, fight viruses and other cells that do not belong in your body. T-cells work with B-cells to fight off the disease cells. They tell your brain to give you & feverso the disease cells will not be able to grow. Many diseases cannot grow when your body is hot. And some white cells eat disease cells! Go white blood cells!

Some of your cells are bone cells. They are also called osteocytes. Osteocytes make bone. The bone grows to form all around them. The osteocytes get food through tiny strings that go to nearby blood vessels. Blood vessels are the tubes that carry blood in your body.

Some of your cells are skin cells. They are also called epithelial cells. They grow your skin. Your skin keeps dirt off your tissues. Your skin forms the outside of some organs,like your stomach and lungs. An adult has about 9 pounds of skin on his or her body.

Some of your cells are liver cells. They are also called hepatocytes. These cells check your blood. They make sure your blood has the right amount of sugars in it. They also help clean poisons from your body. They help make substances that help your blood to clot, or stick together. They clean alcohol from your body if you drink alcohol or take medicine with alcohol in it.

Some of your cells are fat cells. Their job is to store fat. The fat is a place where your body keeps or stores energy. The fat pads the organs in your body. The layers of fat also help keep your body warm. Your body weight depends on how fast your body stores fat compared to how fast your body uses up energy.

Some of your cells are muscle cells. Your muscles are made of these cells. They are also called myocytes. Your neurons send the messages to move muscles that are connected to your bones and your skeletal muscles. However, your nerve cells do not tell your heart muscles when to beat. Your heart muscles and smooth muscles have inner signals that tell them to move. Smooth muscles are muscles that you do not have to think about, like the muscles that work in the digestion of food.

Your cells are busy all the time. Even while you are sleeping, your cells are working hard to keep your body alive and healthy.

 

I. Write (true) or – (false) for each of the statements below:

1. Our body consists of more than two hundred cells.

2. Various types of cells can be combined to form tissues.

3. Synapse is a constituent of nerve cells.

4. If you get rid of something, you destroy it.

5. Red blood cells are responsible for health.

6. Temperature stimulates the growth of the disease cells.

7. If you have a fever, your body is in pain.

8. Fat cells help people preserve energy.

9. All groups of muscles are controlled by inner messages.

10. Work of cells is significant for a human-being.

 

II. Answer the questions.

1. What do we call cells?

2. What are the main features of cells?

3. What satiates bone cells?

4. What kind of cells keeps dirt off your body’s organs?

5. What is a bodily organ?

6. What do liver cells do?

7. What is an example of smooth muscles?

 

Text # 36 Chocolate

Chocolate — there's nothing quite like it, is there? Chocolate is simply delicious. What is chocolate? Where does it come from?

Christopher Columbus was probably the first to take cacao beans from the New World to Europe in around 1502. But the history of chocolate goes back at least 4,000 years! The Aztecs, who lived in America, thought that their bitter cacao drink was a divinegift from heaven, hi fact, the scientist Carolus Linnaeus named the plant Theobroma,which means "food of the gods."

The Spanish explorer Hernando Cortez went to America in 1519. He visited the Mexican emperor Montezuma. He saw that Montezuma drank cacao mixed with vanilla and spices. Cortez took some cacao home as a gift to the Spanish King Charles. In Spain, people began to drink Cortez's chocolate in a drink with chili peppers. However, the natural taste of cacao was too bitter for most people. To sweeten the drink, Europeans added sugar to the cacao drink. As a sweet drink, it became more popular. By the 17th century, rich people in Europe were drinking it.

Later, people started using chocolate in pastries, like pies and cakes. In 1828, Dutch chocolate makers started using a new process for removing the fat from cacao beans, and getting to the center of the cacao bean. The Dutch chocolate maker Conrad J. van Houten made a machine that pressed the fat from the bean. The resulting powder mixed better with water than cacao did. Now, some call van Houten's chocolate "Dutch chocolate."

It was easy to mix Dutch chocolate powder with sugar. So other chocolate makers started trying new recipes that used powdered chocolate. People started mixing sweetened chocolate with cocoa butter to make solid chocolate bars. In 1849, an English chocolate maker made the first chocolate bar. In the 19th century, the Swiss started making milk chocolate by mixing powdered milk with sweetened chocolate. Milk chocolate has not changed much since this process was invented.

Today, two countries - Brazil and Ivory Coast - account for almost half the world's chocolate. The United States imports most of the chocolate in the world, but the Swiss eat the most chocolate per person. The most chocolate eaten today is sweet milk chocolate, but people also eat white chocolate and dark chocolate.

Cocoa and dark chocolate are believed to help preventheart attacks, or help keep them from happening. They are supposed to be good for the circulatory system. On the other hand, the high fat content of chocolate can cause weight gain, which is not good for people's health. Other health claims for chocolate have not been proven, but some research shows that chocolate could be good for the brain.

Chocolate is a popular holiday gift. A popular Valentine's Day gift is a box of chocolate candies with a card and flowers. Chocolate is sometimes given for Christmas and birthdays. Chocolate eggs are sometimes given at Easter.

Chocolate is toxicto some animals. An ingredient in chocolate is poisonous to dogs, cats, parrots, small rodents, and some livestock. Their bodies cannot process some of the chemicals found in chocolate. Therefore, they should never be fed chocolate.

 

 


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