I. Mark if the following statements: T) correspond to the contents of the text; F) do not correspond to the contents of the text
1. Rikki has spent some time travelling in England.
2. The lack of rain is not the only cause of the lake’s reduction in size.
3. Rikki’s town, Bol, is further from the lake than it is used to be.
4. Lake Chad’s disappearance is causing financial pressures for Rikki’s family.
5. Rikki feels the government should help him more.
6. Angela Muscovite wants the Chad government to save the lake.
7. She thinks action will come too late to save the lake.
8. Charlie Vaughan says permission to extract water is given too easily.
9. The demands of agriculture have been largely responsible for the lake’s problems.
10. Rikki will work in a garage when the fishing becomes too bad.
Text # 38 New Life.
Considering their wedding cost over $20,000 and took a year and a half to organize, you would be surprised to hear that Richard and Victoria Hammond now intend to forget it. Well, almost.
"It was a wonderful wedding, an unbelievable day," says Victoria. "But we have so much we want to do together now, we are both looking to the future." Her husband, banker and amateur race driver Richard, agrees. "Both our minds are now fixed firmly on the future. I'll never forget our wedding ceremony or the reception we had at a cliff-side hotel afterwards, but there's so much we want, so many hopes. Our marriage is so much more important than the wedding."
"At the moment, we are still living with my parents," explains Victoria, "so our first wish is to find our own place. We intend to start looking for a new house with all the modern conveniences in the suburbs in the new year." Both Victoria and husband Richard have a lot of siblings. Do they intend to add to the extended Hammond family? "We plan on having two or three children ourselves," Richard tells me. "Victoria is just wonderful with children and I can get 3 years paternity leave from my work, which is just perfect."
The young couple has just returned from a two-week honeymoon spent in an authentic Scottish castle. Both the newly-weds are big travel lovers and Richard hopes this will continue. "I would like to go travelling as much as possible together. Travelling with someone else is such a sharing experience. I think it's sad to experience all the wonderful places in the world and have no-one else there." Victoria also has another great travel ambition that she might have to do alone. "I have always been fascinated by safari and my real wish is to go on safari. Richard has no interest in wildlife though."
And what about the marriage itself? In a world with such a high divorce rate, how do Richard and Victoria hope to avoid all the problems that beset so many other couples? Richard explains thoughtfully that "our ambition is to always talk to each other. If you stop communicating, what chance do you have?" His wife goes along with that completely. "I hope that we can speak about things, but also not expect everything to be easy. I think many people expect the wedding to be the end of getting to know each other. I think it's the start."
I. Write (true) or – (false) for each of the statements below:
1. Victoria and Richard have been married for about a year and a half.
2. They got married in a dramatic location.
3. The wedding was expensive.
4. Their first ambition is to find a house to live in.
5. Victoria wants an old fashioned house.
6. They both have many brothers and sisters.
7. Richard can temporarily leave his job to look after his children.
8. Richard and Victoria have identical tastes regarding vacations.
9. Richard hopes to make talking an important part of their marriage.
10. Victoria thinks she now knows Richard sufficiently well.
II. Multiple choice.
1. The expenses of the wedding ceremony were
a) 2,000 b) 20,000 c) 200,000
2. The most important thing for this couple now is
a) to travel more around the world.
b) to extend the family.
c) to create an ideal family.
3) Victoria and Richard dream of a comfortable house
a) in Scotland.
b) in the suburbs.
c) in the countryside.
4) They spent their honey moon …
a) travelling around the world.
b) visiting ancient places.
c) enjoying the wildlife.
5. According to the text, travelling is
a) a chance to explore the world.
b) an opportunity to get a new experience.
c) a chance to share the experience.
6. In their opinion, wedding is
a) the beginning of real relationships.
b) the end of getting to know each other.
c) facing many serious problems.
Text # 39 SLEEP
"Wake up!" Do you hear these words often? If so, maybe you are not getting enough sleep. What is sleep? Why do people sleep? How much sleep do you need?
All people sleep. All mammals and birds also sleep. Some reptiles, amphibians, and fish sleep too. Scientists understand some of the reasons for sleep. But they do not understand everything about it.
There are two kinds of sleep in mammals and birds. One kind of sleep is Rapid Eye Movement sleep, which we call REM sleep. The other kind of sleep is Non-Rapid Eye Movement sleep, which we call NREM or non-REM sleep. The American Academy of Sleep Medicine divides NREM sleep into three stages: N1, N2, and N3 sleep.
When people first go to sleep, they are in NREM sleep. The first stage of NREM sleep is N1 sleep. During N1 sleep, people get very drowsy. Some people have muscle twitches during this part of sleep. People are not very conscious of, or aware of, their surroundings during this stage of sleep. Brain monitors identify small, slow, and irregular brain waves during N1 sleep. The second stage of sleep is N2 sleep. People are not at all conscious of their surroundings during N2 sleep. About 45%-55% of total adult sleep is N2 sleep. Brain monitors identify large brain waves with quick bursts of activity during N2 sleep. The third stage of sleep is N3 sleep. It is very deep sleep. Brain monitors identify very slow brain waves during N3 sleep. Therefore, N3 sleep is called slow-wave sleep (SWS.)
After N3 sleep, people cycle back to lighter N2 sleep before going into REM sleep. People cycle through the stages of NREM sleep 4 or 5 times each night and enter REM sleep several times during one night. Dreams occur during REM sleep and the eyes move quickly beneath closed eyelids. During REM sleep, people and animals areparalyzed.Scientists think people enter a state in which they cannot move so they will not hurt themselves while they are dreaming.
The National Sleep Foundation in the United States says that 7-9 hours of sleep daily is best for an adult. Seven to nine hours of sleep is good for memory, alertness, problem-solving, and health. Less than six hours of sleep affects the ability to think. Getting too much sleep may not be good for people either. Too much sleep is linked to sickness and depression.
Babies need a lot more sleep than adults. A newborn infant needs up to 18 hours of sleep each day. A baby spends about nine hours in REM sleep. Five-year-olds need 11-13 hours of sleep each day. A five-year-old spends about 2 hours in REM sleep. Teenagers need 9-10 hours of sleep each day. Pregnant women need more sleep than other adults. Many people think that elderly people need less sleep than younger adults, but that is not true. Most adults do well with 7-9 hours of sleep.
Scientists are not sure of all the reasons for sleep. They know that sleep helps the body heal and grow. Sleep helps the immune system - which helps people fight disease. Sleep helps the infant brain grow. It seems that REM sleep is especially important for babies' brain growth. It also seems that sleep is a time for processing memories. Why do we dream? Some scientists believe that dreams have a psychological purpose. Some think that dreams help organize our brains. Some think that dreams are the result of random brain activity during REM sleep.
Sleep patterns differ substantially from culture to culture. Cultures with artificial light have different sleep patterns from cultures without artificial light (like electric lamps.) In cultures that use artificial light, people usually go to sleep later at night, and they sleep through the night. In other cultures, people often sleep for two periods. They go to sleep shortly after the sun goes down. They sleep deeply for several hours. Then, they tend to wake up for several hours. Afterward, they go to sleep again for several more hours. In hunter-gatherer groups, people sleep off and on throughout the day and night.
People sleep in a variety of places, too. Some people sleep on the ground. Some sleep on mats or in beds. Some use pillows, blankets, and other bedding. But they all sleep!
Good night! Sweet dreams!
I. Write (true) or – (false) for each of the statements below:
1. Scientists have already learnt everything about sleep.
2. When people first go to sleep, they are in REM sleep.
3. If you are conscious of something, you are aware of it.
4. People can cycle through all stages of NREM sleep for several times each night.
5. According to the text, people can have dreams only during NREM sleep.
6. If you are paralyzed, you can’t sleep.
7. Sleep patterns are unchangeable.
8. Too much sleep gives energy.
9. If something is artificial, it is non-natural.
10. A person is able to sleep in any position.
II. Answer the question.
1. What are the main features of NREM?
2. What happens during REM?
3. What is called slow wave sleep?
4. How many hours of sleep should an adult get? Why?
5. Which group needs the most sleep? Why?
6. Why do people sleep?
7. What are the purposes of dreams?
8. How does the lack of sleep influence people?
9. How did the artificial light change sleep patterns?
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