I For questions 1-7 choose the answer A, B, C or D which you think fits best according to the text.
1 What was odd about Manya's school?
A The pupils were encouraged to deceive the school inspector.
B The pupils had to disobey the teacher.
C The school building was strange.
D The pupils wrote their own rules.
2 What do we learn about the history lesson?
A It was about disobedience.
B It was the best history lesson in the school.
C It was on the subject of food.
D It was against the rules.
3 Why were the pupils listening for the bell?
A It meant the end of the lesson.
B They wanted the teacher to be caught.
C It meant the inspector was coming.
D They wanted to finish their needlework to show the inspector.
4 How did Manya feel while answering the question?
A frustrated because she didn't know enough about the history she was studying
B upset because King Auguste had not had enough courage
C sad and angry because she couldn't finish answering the question
D annoyed that the king had not made her strong
5 What happened when the bell rang?
A Some children went to their bedroom while others piled up books.
B Children moved about in a disorganised way.
C All the children collected up books, moving quickly because of the cold.
D All the children put the forbidden books away, according to a precise routine.
6 How did the headteacher feel when she entered the classroom with the inspector?
A She was discontented that the children had done nothing except make
B She was pleased that the children had had time to hide their needlework.
C She was relieved that the children had changed the appearance of the classroom quickly enough.
D She was afraid that the inspector had heard the warning bell.
7 Why was the inspector satisfied?
A He thought he had had an influence on the teaching.
B He liked listening to fairy tales.
C He couldn't see any needlework.
D He had given the class plenty of warning of his arrival.
The use of leisure, we are frequently told, is now or will shortly become one of the major problems of the age of affluence. As the working week gets shorter, how are we to occupy the endless hours not spent at work? Are we equipped by education, training or habits of mind to meet the personal challenge that leisure presents to us? Is there not now an urgent need to re-educate and re-train so that when our leisure hours lengthen beyond our capacity with watching TV, do-it-yourself carpentry or fishing, we shall have further, more useful and time-filling activities to follow?
To some extent the problem is a false one, or at any rate has been falsely stated. There is a leisure problem, though it is not the one usually presented to us. There is also a work problem. Both are really parts of the same overall problem, which is how we are to use our time.
A busy manager and a factory worker have the same leisure problem: how to find the time and energy after a long, tiring day to come to life as human beings and live their own lives. They have very little spare time in which to be themselves and not enough energy left at the end of the day to be sociable, mentally or physically active or creative. When their hours of work are suddenly and severely reduced, both men have a different problem: how to fill the time that was previously occupied by work. They are now free to do all the things they always thought they wanted to do. After a period of adjustment, they take to golf and cocktail parties or fishing and gardening, according to their taste, and are then considered to have solved the leisure problem. In fact, they may have done nothing of the kind. They may now be spending part of their time doing things which bore them instead of things which merely exhaust them. They may be following their different leisure activities not because these are the activities that have always fascinated them but simply because social conventions suggest that they are suitable ways for managers or factory workers to spend their working hours.
If they lose their jobs altogether, both men have a great increase in leisure. Indeed, they previously spent working is now leisure time. Yet they are then not said to have a leisure problem, but a work problem. They have this problem even when savings or pension gives them an assured income so that the earning of money is not of vital importance for material survival. They have a work problem not only because there is in most men a practical need to earn a living. There is also a psychological need to be a contributing member of society, doing something to earn the respect of other people, and a need to be doing something which maintains self-respect.
The present-day problem of work or leisure is made more noticeable by the very uneven spread of both among the population of most advanced industrial countries. Despite the trend to shorter working hours, some workers at all levels from factory worker to managing director are working sixty hours a week or more, with almost no usable leisure time, while оthers are unemployed. What all of them share is a problem of how to organize a pleasant and acceptable division of their time among a number of activities, so as to achieve a balanced and enjoyable life free from too much physical or psychological stress.
Дата добавления: 2018-02-18; просмотров: 488;