Exercise 1. Choose the word which best fits all three sentences



Before you start the exercise, check any items you don't know in a dictionary, then try the exercise without referring to the dictionary again.

Fats energy intake protein alcohol vitamins enzyme

Начало формы

A: At one time all _________ were considered 'bad' and should therefore be reduced in the diet, whereas now we are told that many are in fact necessary for good health.

B: _________ , or lipids as they are called in the nutrition jargon, are defined as those substances that are soluble in organic solvents, such as ether, hexae and chloroform, whilst being insoluble in water.

C: Junk food is food with minimal nutritional value, characterised by high levels of saturated _________ and refined sugar.

Exercise 2. Choose the word which best fits all three sentences.

Before you start the exercise, check any items you don't know in a dictionary, then try the exercise without referring to the dictionary again.

Fats energy intake protein alcohol vitamins enzyme

 

Начало формы

A: In real terms, foods with added _________ and minerals are likely to be beneficial only when incorporated into an already healthy and balanced diet.

B: This group of substances includes triacylglycerols, diacylglycerols, monoacylglycerols, free fatty acids, phospholipids, sterols, carotenoids and _________ A and D.

C: Daily intakes have a skewed distribution to the right which means a large proportion of students took more than enough _________ a day.

Конец формы

 

Exercise 3.  Choose the word which best fits all three sentences.

Before you start the exercise, check any items you don't know in a dictionary, then try the exercise without referring to the dictionary again.

Fats energy intake protein alcohol vitamins enzyme

 

Начало формы

A: If the basal metabolism increases, more energy is used up, leading to greater energy expenditure than energy _________, ultimately resulting in weight loss.

B: This history of alcohol abuse and recent need to cut down his alcohol _________ will be impacting on him socially, psychologically and physically.

C: In addition she has poor appetite and as a consequence her nutritional _________ is poor.

Exercise 4.  Choose the word which best fits all three sentences.

Before you start the exercise, check any items you don't know in a dictionary, then try the exercise without referring to the dictionary again.

Fats energy intake protein alcohol vitamins enzyme

Начало формы

A: This _________ catalyses the following reaction from the citric acid cycle.

B: Two molecules of ATP are used to convert glucose to fructose 1,6 bisphosphate, which is more reactive and can therefore be split by _________ action.

C: This _________ cleaves the bond between the C-1 carbon atom and the glycosidic oxygen atom of the substrate.

 

Exercise 5.  Choose the word which best fits all three sentences.

Before you start the exercise, check any items you don't know in a dictionary, then try the exercise without referring to the dictionary again.

Fats energy intake protein alcohol vitamins enzyme

Начало формы

A: Excessive _________ consumption may be detrimental to the attitudes of students towards academic work.

B: They may turn to _________ as a further means of coping.

C: _________'s mood-altering properties (e.g. its analgesic effects) may offer an attractive antidote for dysphoria.

Exercise 6.  Choose the word which best fits all three sentences.

Before you start the exercise, check any items you don't know in a dictionary, then try the exercise without referring to the dictionary again.

Fats energy intake protein alcohol vitamins enzyme

Начало формы

A: Mitochondrion creates _________ for cellular activity via aerobic respiration, from glucose. B: The change is normally in the ability to use a compound as an _________ source or resistance to an antibacterial agent.

 C: Weight gain increases leptin levels and induces a different response, leading to a state of negative _________ balance.

Exercise 7.  Choose the word which best fits all three sentences.

Before you start the exercise, check any items you don't know in a dictionary, then try the exercise without referring to the dictionary again.

Fats energy intake protein alcohol vitamins enzyme

Начало формы

A: A wider range of products reduced the chances of starvation from crop failure, and also led to better sources of nutrients - most notably _________.

B: In a globular _________ such as carbonic anhydrase, a human enzyme, many hydrogen bonds exist.

C: Bushmeat is an important source of _________ and fat for many families in central and western Africa.

 

 

Human Genome Project

Completed in 2003, the Human Genome Project (HGP) was a 13-year project coordinated by the 0. S. Department of Energy and the National Institutes of Health. The Wellcome Trust (U. K.) became a major partner; additional contributions came from Japan, France, Germany, China, and others.

 

   

Project goals were to:

1. Identify all the approximately 20.000-25.000 genes in human DNA

2. Determine the sequences of the 3 billion chemical base pairs thatmake up human DNA,

3. Store this information in databases,

4. Improve tools for data analysis,

5. Transfer related technologies to the private sector, and

6. Address the ethical, legal, and social issues (ELSI) that may arise from the project.

Though the HGP is finished, analysis of the data will continue for many years. An important feature of the HGP project was the federal government's long-standing dedication to the transfer of technology to the private sector. By licensing technolo­gies to private companies and awarding grants for innovative research, the project catalyzed the multibillion-dollar CJ. S. biotechnology industry and fostered the devel­opment of new medical applications.

 

 

Cloning

Cloning is a biological technique which is used to produce offspring with desired traits. A clone is an organism that has exactly the same genes as the organism from which it was produced. It is something like a genetic copy of an organism.

Nowadays biologists are cloning some plants animals. In plants, cloning is not very difficult, just cut a stem from one plant, and put the stem in soil. Water it, soon you will have a whole new plant which is genetically identical to the plant from which the stem was cut. Cloning is more complex in ani­mals. In spite of that, biologists have cloned some animals, such as sheep and pigs.

Biologists take the nucleus of an animal's body cell and insert that nucleus into another animal's body cell to produce a new individual, as in the figure. Dolly became the first cloned mammal in 1996. She was the result of the cloning of a somatic cell taken from one of the mammary glands of an adult female sheep.

Cloning humans using this technology is not a strong pos­sibility due to laws in place against experimenting on humans. Cloning humans has been pronounced illegal in Britain. Ian Wilmut, an embryologist and leader of the team at Roslin Institute, USA, has denied that attempts have been madeclone humans.

 

 

 

Exercises

 

Answer the questions

 


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