Order the letters in the word
1. GSOEMINC is the new field of biology.
2. GINCOLN is a biological technique which is used to produce offspring with desired traits.
3. OTBISLOIGS are cloning some plants animals.
4. YLDLO became the first cloned mammal in 1996.
5. WTUMIL has denied that attempts have been made to clone humans.
Read the statements and decide whether they are true (T) or false (F). Correct the wrong statements.
1. Biotechnology and genomics are new fields of biology that started in the end 1980’s.
2. Genetic engineering promises to decrease the quality of human life.
3. Genetic engineering could have a negative effect on our quality of life.
4. Gene therapy is the treatment of plant diseases.
5. Chromosomes are made of DNA and are in the nucleus of a cell.
6. Cloning humans has been pronounced legal all over the world.
7. Genetic modification of plants started in 1953.
8. GM foods are easily available in the U.S. and Europe.
Frankenfood is the name given to GM food because it is considered unnatural.
Fill in the gaps
humans * cloning * virus * gene therapy * animals * clone * plants * mammal * genetic engineering * isolate * dissect * experimenting * stem
- ……………………………promises to increase the quality of life.
- It is possible to ………… and …………. essentially any gene and any segment of any chromosome of any organism.
- ………is the treatment of human diseases.
- In gene therapy, a normal allele is placed in a ………
- ……… is a biological technique which is used to produce offspring with desired traits.
- A …….is something like a genetic copy of an organism.
- Cloning is not very difficult in …………….
- Cloning is more complex in ………………..
- Dolly became the first cloned ……….. in 1996.
- Cloning humans is not a strong possibility due to laws in place against.......... on humans.
- Wilmut has denied that attempts have been made to clone humans.
- Cut a .....from one plant, and put it in soil.
Match the sentence halves
|1. Cloning is a biological technique||a. can be used to modify the metabolism of microorganisms|
|2. Dolly was the result of the cloning||b. promises to increase the quality of human life|
|3. Genetic engineering||c. which is used to produce offspring with desired traits|
|4. GM food has even been called||d. already used to help produce large volumes of medicine|
|5. Genetic engineering||e. of a somatic cell taken from one of the mammary glands of an adult female sheep|
|6. Gene therapy||f. using this technology is not a strong possibility due to laws in place against experimenting on humans|
|7. Genetic engineering is||g. of plants and crops has been in practice for many years|
|8. For over a decade||h. “Frankenfood” which inspired by the novel Frankenstein by Mary Shelley|
|9. The genetic modification||i. is a kind of genetic engineering|
|10. Cloning humans||j. Americans have been eating GM food|
UNIT 4 METALS AND NON-METALS
Periodic table of the elements
Periodic Table: It is the table of chemical elements arranged in order of atomic number such that elements with similar atomic structure appear in the vertical columns.
Modern periodic law: The Modern periodic law states “The chemical and physical properties of elements are a periodic function of their atomic numbers”. Modern periodic table (photo 1) is based on the modern periodic law.
Groups - There are 18 vertical columns in the periodic table. Each column is called a group. All elements in a group have similar chemical and physical properties because they have the same number of outer electrons.
Periods - In periodic table elements are arranged in a series of rows. Elements of the same period have the same number of electron shells.
Classification of elements
Group 1 on extreme left position contains alkali metals.
The alkaline earth metals are metallic elements found in the group 2 of the periodic table.
Elements present in groups 3 to 12 in the middle of the periodic table are called transition elements.
Group 18 on extreme right side position contain noble gases. .
14 elements with atomic numbers 58 to 71 are called lanthanides and they are placed along with the element lanthanum (La).
14 elements with atomic numbers 90 to 103 are called actinides and they are placed along with the element actinium (Ac).
Atomic number: Atomic number of an element is the number of protons found in the nucleus of the atom of that element.
Mass number: Mass number of an element is the total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of the atom of that element.
Atomic mass: The atomic mass is the mass of an atomic particle, sub-atomic particle, or molecule.
Electronic configuration: The electronic configuration is the distribution of electrons of an atom or molecule in atomic or molecular orbitals.
Melting point: The temperature at which an element changes its state from solid to liquid is called as the melting point of the element.
Boiling point: The temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid equals the pressure surrounding the liquid and the liquid changes into a vapor is known as the boiling point of that element. (photo 2)
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