Medical and pharmaceutical applications



· Medical applications of DNA technology include diagnostic tests for genetic and other diseases, safer and more effective vaccines, and the large scale pro­duction of many new pharmaceutical products. It is possible to produce some important hormones and enzymes.

Industrial applications

· By using DNA technologies some cleaning products, such as detergents, are produced.

Agricultural applications

· Recombinant DNA technology is being used to improve crops in a number of ways, by increasing their productivity and by making them more nutritious and cold resistant. Recombinant DNA technology promises many practical benefits in the field of agriculture. Some milk cows are being injected with bovine growth hor­mone (BGH) produced by genetically modified E. coli in order to increase milk production. In plants, some herbicide-resistant plants have been produced.

Forensics applications

· DNA fingerprints obtained from several samples of tissue found at the scenes of violent crimes provide evidence in trials. It is also useful in paternity disputes.

Environmental or ecological applications

· Genetic engineering can be used to modify the metabolism of microorganisms so that they can be used to extract minerals from the environment or degrade waste. For example, many bacteria can extract heavy metals, such as copper, lead, and nickel from their environment and incorporate the metals into compounds such as copper sulfate or lead sulfate which are readily recoverable.

Exercises

 

Match the terms with their definitions

1.chromosomes a. A preparation containing dead or weakened pathogens that, when injected into the body, elicit an immune response.
2.deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) b. The sum of all chemical reactions (energy exchanges) in cells.
3.vaccine c. A nucleic acid composed of two polynucleotide strands wound around a central axis to form a double helix
4.genes d. Structures in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell that consist of DNA molecules that contain the genes.
5.metabolism e. Specific segments of DNA that control cell structure and function; the functional units of inheritance.
6.genetic engineering f. An illness caused by an infection or by a failure of health and not by an accident
7.dissect g. A chemical that is used to destroy plants, especially weeds
8.segment h. The activity of changing the genes in the cells of plants or animals
9.disease i. To cut something into pieces for scientific study
10.herbicides j. One of the parts that something can be divided into

 

 

Answer the questions

  1. What are the most powerful fields of biology?
  2. What are recombinant DNA technology and genetic engineering?
  3. What are practical applications of recombinant DNA technology?
  4. What are medical applications of DNA technology?
  5. What steps does gene therapy involve?
  6. What are agricultural applications of DNA technology?
  7. What are ecological applications of DNA technology?
  8. What are forensics applications of DNA technology?

Match the sentence halves

1. Genetic engineering promises a. great promise for the future. It has great poten­tial
2. Genetic engineering holds b. to improve crops in a number of ways
3. Recombinant DNA technology promises c. to modify the metabolism of microorganisms
4. By using DNA technologies d. to increase the quality of human life
5. Recombinant DNA technology is being used e. include diagnostic tests for genetic and other diseases
6. Genetic engineering can be used f. many practical benefits in the field of agriculture
7. Medical applications of DNA technology g. some cleaning products, such as detergents, are produced.

 

Human gene therapy

Gene therapy is the treatment of human diseases. It involves 3 steps: 1) the removal of some of the patient's cells; 2) the introduction of normal, functional copies of genes that are defective in the patient into these cells; and, 3) the rein- troduction of transgenic repaired cells into the patient.

 

 

 


                                


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