Answer the following questions


1. What are the cells?

2. What are the main parts of eukaryotic cells?

3. What are the main tasks of the cell membrane, cytoplasm and nucleus?

4. What is Diffusion?

5. What is Osmosis?

6. What is Genetics?

7. What is DNA?

8. What is the main function of proteins?

9. What is Transcription?

10. What is Transport?

11. What is Translation?

12. What is RNA?

13. What genetic principles account for the transmission of traits from parent to offspring?

14. What is the alphabet of life?

15. What is the function of DNA for heredity?

16. What code does a cell use?

17. What information does the DNA code contain?

18. What are chromosomes made of?

19. What are alleles?


Order the letters in the word

1. CEISNETG is the study of genes.

2. SENEG are located on chromosomes.

3. ROTEPINS are made of chains of hundreds and thousands of amino acids.

4. HROSOMECO contains hundreds of genes.

5. SELALEL can be dominant and recessive.



Read the statements and decide whether they are true (T) or false (F). Correct the wrong statements.

1. DNA carries messages from RNA for making proteins.

2. Chromosomes have DNA.

3. The code is a chemical called deoxyribonucleic acid, or RNA.

4. New cells receive the same coded information that was in the original cell.

5. Genes control an organism’s body and function.

6. The different forms of a trait that a gene may have are called cells.

Fill in the gaps.

modified * enzyme * ATP *    genes * alleles * proteins *   amino acids *heredity * DNA template * ribosomes * deoxyribonucleic acid * tissues  * DNA *code * chromosomes * segment * cell


1. Genetics is the study of ………………

2. Genetics is the branch of biology that deals with the study of …………….

3. A gene is a ……………….. of DNA that codes a particular trait.

4. Genes are located on ……………………

5. The different forms of a trait that a gene may have are called ……………

6. A ………. also uses a code that is stored in its hereditary material.

7. When a cell divides, the DNA code is copied and passed to the new cells.

8. The color of your hair depends on the kinds of proteins your cells make.

9. Proteins build cells and …….. or work as enzymes.

10. Proteins are made of chains of hundreds or thousands of ………..

11. Proteins are made of on …….in the cytoplasm.

12. RNA is transcribed from a ………………

13. The code is a chemical called ……………….., or DNA.

14. Each amino acid attaches to its proper tRNA with the help of a specific ..…… and ………..

15. In eukaryotes the RNA transcript is spliced and …….. to produce mRNA.

Fill in the table

Eukaryotic cell    
Cell membrane    

Read the text and answer the questions.





These are new fields of biology that started in the mid 1970's. They are with­out doubt the most powerful tools ever developed in the field of biology, if used wisely. Genetic engineering promises to increase the quality of human life. On the other hand, if used haphazardly and carelessly, genetic engineering could have a negative effect on our quality of life.

Like any powerful tool, genetic engineering must be used carefully and wise­ly if we don't want unfortunate accidents. With the development of recombinant DNA and gene cloning technologies, biologists are now able to isolate and dis­sect essentially any gene and any segment of any chromosome of any organ­ism. This has resulted in the explosive accumulation of new information in vir­tually every area of biology.

What are recombinant DNA technology and genetic engineering? They are biotechnical processes that permit the formation of new combinations of genes by isolating genes from one organism and introducing them into either a simi­lar or an unrelated organism.



Practical applications of recombinant DNA technology

· Genetic engineering holds great promise for the future. It has great poten­tial. It is possible to isolate and dissect essentially any gene and any segment of any chromosome of any organism.

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