So, that's all I have to say on the first point. Let's move on to the second section which I have called party organization. 

At the heart of the French conflictual political culture is the multi-party system. Currently, under the government of the Fifth Republic, two trends have appeared in recent years:

• Fewer parties with longer-lasting coalitions - Before the Fifth Republic, the number of parties proliferated, many with very specific goals and causes. Today the parties have stabilized and appear to be forming longer-last coalitions than during the Third and Fourth Republics.

• Movement toward the ideological center. Even though the left/right division is still important, at least three of the major political parties have moderated their views and policies toward the center of the ideological spectrum.

Political parties are organized and introduced at two levels in France:

At national level, a national office or council, led by a chairman or national secretary, most often elected by all its members;

At local level, branches or cells organised into Departmental federations. Their bodies are elected by the members.

3. OK. That's everything on Part Two. I will now move on to Part Three. Let's now take the largest political parties.Parties take an active part in conducting political life:

• They serve as intermediaries between the people and those in power

• They play a leadership role: They aim to exercise power with a view to implementing the political programme they announce.

The French two-round majority system is a compromise between plurality and proportional representation. The largest political parties in France are: The Union for a Popular Movement, The Union for French Democracy,The Socialist Party, The French Communist Party, The Greens, The National Front, Rally for the Republic (RPR), The Left Radical Party.

That's all. I am ready to answer your questions.


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