Proceed to the second part the role of the Council of Ministers in the executive branch
The Council of Ministers plays a key role in the executive branch, advising the president and prime minister in specific policy domains. Ministers to the Council are appointed by the president at the suggestion of the prime minister. Traditionally, the Council comprises members of three ranks. Ministers are the most senior members of the cabinet; deputy ministers (ministresdélégués) assist ministers in key priorities of the ministry; secretaries of state (secrétaires d’état) assist ministers in less crucial areas and attend cabinet meetings only occasionally.
The number of ministries, as well as the nature of their responsibilities, can vary depending on the priorities of the president and the prime minister. Nevertheless, a few ministries, called the ministèresrégaliens (historically,régalien refers to royal powers) are always the same: defense, foreign affairs, justice, interior and finance.
OK. That's everything on Part Two. I will now move on to Part Three. Let's now take organization of government services.
Each ministry has a central administration, generally divided into directorates. These directorates are usually subdivided into divisions or sub-directorates. Each direction is headed by a director, named by the President in Council. The central administration largely stays the same regardless of the political tendency of the executive in power.
In addition, each minister has a private office, which is composed of members whose nomination is politically determined, called the cabinet. They are quite important and employ numbers of highly qualified staff to follow all the administrative and political affairs. They are powerful, and have been sometimes considered as a parallel administration, especially, but not only, in all matters that are politically sensitive. Each cabinet is led by a chief of staff named directeur de cabinet.
The state also has distributive services spread throughout French territory, often reflecting divisions into régions or départements. The prefect, the representative of the national government in each région or département, supervises the activities of the distributive services in his or her jurisdiction. Generally, the services of a certain administration in a région or département are managed by a high-level civil servant, often called director.
That's all. I am ready to answer your questions.
Topic 4.Legislative branch of power. National Assembly and Senate
Тoday I would like to introduce you about LEGISLATIVE BRANCH in France. I've divided the talk into three sections: the common data of France’s Parliament, National Assembly and SENATE.
So, let's start with the common data of France’s Parliament.
France’s Parliament consists of two chambers – the National Assembly and the Senate. They pass laws, vote on the national budget and monitor the actions of the executive branch.
Proceed to the second part NATIONAL ASSEMBLY.
There are 577 deputies in the National Assembly, which like the Senate, has the authority to submit and amend bills and vote on the budget. While both chambers must pass a bill for it to become a law, the Council of Ministers can decide to give the National Assembly the last word in the legislative process in the event of a disagreement between the two chambers. Unlike the Senate, the National Assembly has the power to censure a government if a majority of the total Assembly membership votes in favor.
Deputies in the National Assembly are elected to a five-year term by direct universal suffrage in a two-round system of elections. All members of the National Assembly are elected at one time. In the first round of elections, a candidate must receive more than half of the votes cast in order to win. If there is no winner from the first round, a second round of elections is held. The winner is the candidate who receives the largest share of votes.
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