OK. That's everything on Part Two. I will now move on to Part Three. Let's now take SENATE



The Senate’s legislative powers are similar to those of the National Assembly. Senators represent local governments. The Senate submits and amends bills as well as votes on the budget. The National Assembly can overrule the Senate in the legislative process in the case of a disagreement, but unlike the National Assembly, the

Senate cannot be dissolved.

Members of the Senate are elected indirectly by electoral colleges in their districts and serve six-year terms. Every three years, half of the Senate is up for re-election. There are 348 seats in the Senate. The last Senate election was held in September 2011, when the Socialist Party took the majority for the first time since the beginning of the Fifth Republic in 1958.

That's all. I am ready to answer your questions.

Topic 5.Legislation adoption procedures.

Тoday I would like to introduce you “Legislation adoption procedures”. I've divided the talk into three sections. First point is the offer consideration of the bill. Second point is the consideration of the bill. And the third point is the adoption and signing of the bill.

So, the first part of my presentation is the offer consideration of the bill.

Statute legislation may be proposed by the government (council of ministers), or by members of Parliament. In the first case, it is a project of the law; in the latter case, a proposal of the law. All projects of the law must undergo compulsory advisory review by the Council of State before being submitted to parliament.

So, that's all I have to say on the first point. Let's move on to the second section which I have called the consideration of the bill.

Projects of the law start in the house of the government's choice. Proposals of the law start in the house where they originated. After the house has amended and voted on the text, it is sent to the other house, which can also amend it. If the houses do not choose to adopt the text in identical terms, it is sent before a commission made of equal numbers of members of both houses, which tries to harmonize the text. If it does not manage to do so, the National Assembly can vote the text and have the final say on it (except for laws related to the organization of the Senate).

OK. That's everything on Part Two. I will now move on to Part Three. Let's now take the adoption and signing of the bill.

The law is then sent to the President of France for signature. At this point, the President of France, the speaker of either house or a delegation of 60 deputies or 60 senators can ask for the text to undergo constitutional review before being put into force; it is then sent before the Constitutional Council. The President can also, only once per law and with the countersigning of the Prime minister, send the law back to parliament for another review. Otherwise, the President must sign the law. After

being countersigned by the Prime minister and the concerned ministers, it is then sent to the Journal Officiel for publication.

That's all. I am ready to answer your questions.

 

Topic 6.Judicial branch of power.Judicial and Administrative courts.

Тoday I would like to introduce you “Judicial branch of power. Judicial and Administrative courts”. I've divided the talk into three sections. First point is judicial branch of power. Second point is judicial courts. And the third point is administrative courts.

So, the first part of my presentation is judicial branch of power.

French law provides for a separate judicial branch with an independent judiciary which does not answer to or is directly controlled by the other two branches of government. France has a civil law legal system, the basis of which is codified law; however, case law plays a significant role in the determination of the courts. The most distinctive feature of the French judicial system is that it is divided into judicial and administrative streams.

So, that's all I have to say on the first point. Let's move on to the second section which I have called judicial courts.

The judicial stream of courts adjudicates civil and criminal cases. The judicial court stream consists of inferior courts, intermediate appellate courts, and the French Supreme Court. France's independent judiciary enjoys special statutory protection from the executive branch. Judicial appointments must be approved by a special panel, the High Council of the Judiciary, made up of other judges from receiving court. Once appointed, judges serve for life and cannot be removed without specific disciplinary proceedings conducted before the Council conducted in due process. The public prosecutors, on the other hand, take orders from the Minister of Justice. In the past, this has bred suspicion of undue political pressure to dismiss suits or claims against government officials charged with corruption, and the status of public prosecutors and their ties to government are frequently topics of debate.

Trial by jury is available only for severe criminal cases, which are the jurisdiction of the Courts of Assizes. A full Court is made up of a 3-judge panel and a petty jury of 9 jurors (vs. 12 jurors on appeal), who, together, render verdicts, and if a conviction is handed down, also determine a sentence. Jurors are selected at random from eligible voters. The burden of proof in criminal proceedings is on the prosecution, and the accused is constitutionally presumed innocent until proven guilty.


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