So, the first part of my presentation is Government
Topic 1.Background.French political system.
Тoday I would like to introduce you “Background political history of France and French political system”. I've divided the talk into three sections: the common data of France, the Republic of France and the Constitution of France.
So, let's start with the common data.
France is Western Europe's largest country by area and the 48th largest in the world, excluding its overseas territories. It has a population of about 61 million people. By economic measurements, France is among the world's most successful countries.
Proceed to the second part.
The current form of the French system dates from 1958 and today's Fifth Republic is a response to the political weaknesses of the pre-Second World War Third Republic and post-war Fourth Republic.
Four of France's five Republics have had presidents as their heads of state. However, in each of the Republics' constitutions, the President's powers, functions and duties - and his relation with French governments - have differed. The Fifth Republic came about following a political crisis over France's colonial war in Algeria. A popular referendum approved the constitution of the French Fifth Republic in 1958, greatly strengthening the authority of the presidency and the executive with respect to Parliament.
Finally, the last part of the French Constitution.
The framework of the French political system was changed dramatically by the 1958 constitution.
The preamble of the constitution recalls the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen from 1789 and establishes France as a secular and democratic country. The foundational principles of the constitution include: the equality of all citizens before law, and the rejection of special class privileges such as those that existed prior to the French Revolution; presumption of innocence; freedom of speech; freedom of opinion including freedom of religion; etc.
Topic 2. Executive branch: basic principle. Cohabitation.
Тoday I would like to introduce you “Executive branch: basic principle and Cohabitation”.
I've divided the talk into 3 sections. It’s the role of the President and Prime Minister in the Executive government of France, divisions of power and Cohabitation.
So, let’s start with the role of the President and Prime Minister in the Executive government of France.
France’s political system is organized as a semi-presidential republic, meaning that its executive branch is led both by a president and a prime minister. The French president is elected directly by universal suffrage for a five-year term and serves as the head of state. The president appoints the prime minister to serve as the head of government.
Proceed to the second part: Divisions of power.
The Presidency is the most powerful position in the French political system. President’s duties include heading the armed forces, appointment of the Prime Minister, power to dismiss the National Assembly, chairing the Council of Ministers, appointing the members of the highest appellate court and the Constitutional Court, chairing the Higher Council of the Judiciary, negotiating all foreign treaties, and the power to call referenda, but all domestic decisions must be approved by the Prime Minister. One notable exception is the power to dissolve the National Assembly. The President has a very limited form of suspensive veto.
The prime minister directs the operations of the government and, is responsible for the management of defense policy and coordinates the defense-related activities of government ministries, coordinates the implementation of laws and, has the right to introduce bills in Parliament.
Finally, the last part of the Cohabitation.
The power sharing arrangement is known as cohabitation in case, if an opposing party controls the National Assembly, the presidentchoose a prime minister and a cabinet reflecting the majority party in the National Assembly.
Topic 3. Government and organization of its services
Тoday I would like to introduce you Government and organization of its services. I've divided the talk into three sections: Government, the role of the Council of Ministers in the executive branch and organization of government services.
So, the first part of my presentation is Government.
The government is headed by the President. It has at its disposal the civil service, the government agencies, and the armed forces. The government is responsible to the National Assembly which may pass a motion of censure, forcing the resignation of the Council of Ministers (equivalent to the Cabinet in Britain). This, in practice, forces the government to be from the same political party or coalition as the majority in the Assembly.
The government has a leading role in shaping the agenda of the houses of Parliament. It may propose laws to Parliament, as well as amendments during parliamentary meetings. It may make use of some procedures to speed up parliamentary deliberations.
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