Received pronunciation. Spread of English



The Eng lang is spoken in GB, the USA, Australia, New Zealand and the greater part of canada. It ia native to many, who live in India, israel, Malta. All the national varieties of the Eng lang differ from standart pronunciation. Standard pron is the pronunciation govered by the orthoepic norm. It is the pronunciation of educated circles. It is used by radio, television, religionally neutral. The social standart within Britain is the so-called recieved pronunciation. It is the teaching norm at schools and higher learning establishments of the Rus Federation, because of: the digree of understadability in english-speaking countries, the extend of RP investigation, the number of text books and audiovisual aids.

 In Eng we distinguish conservative, general, advanced. In GB the rigional types of Eng are: the Southern Eng, the Northen Eng, the Standart Scottish.

Received and GA pronunciation. General considerations.

The Eng lang is spoken in GB, the USA, Australia, New Zealand and the greater part of canada. It ia native to many, who live in India, israel, Malta. All the national varieties of the Eng lang differ from standart pronunciation. Standard pron is the pronunciation govered by the orthoepic norm. It is the pronunciation of educated circles. It is used by radio, television, religionally neutral.

The social standart within Britain is the so-called recieved pronunciation. It is the teaching norm at schools and higher learning establishments of the Rus Federation, because of: the digree of understadability in english-speaking countries, the extend of RP investigation, the number of text books and audiovisual aids. In GB the rigional types of Eng are: the Southern Eng, the Northen Eng, the Standart Scottish.

In the USA the regional types of Amer variant of Eng are: the Eastern type, the Southern type, the General Am type (northern, Midwestern, Western). In the USA the most widespread type is GA. Like RP in GB, GA in the USA is the social standart. It is religionally neutral, it is used by radio, by TV, in science, it is spoken by educated Americans.

It has been estimated that the standart pron is not homogeneous (не однородное). It changes in relation to other lang-s and also to geograpical, psychological, social and political influences. E.g. in Eng we distinguish conservative, general, advanced RP.

 

The influence of assimilation on the active organ of speech.

When the two neighbouring sounds arc affected by assimilation, it may influence: 1) the work of the vocal cords; 2) the active organ of speech; 3) the manner of noise production; 4) both: the place of articula­tion and the manner of noise production.

l)Assimilation affecting the work of the vocal cords is observed when one of the two adjacent соседний consonants; becomes voiced under the influence of the neighbouring voiced consonant, or voiceless — under the influ­ence of the neighbouring voiceless consonant.

In the process of speech the sonorants /m, n, 1, r; j, w/ are partly devoiced before a vowel, preceded by the voiceless consonant phonemes /s, p, t, k/, e. g. plate, slowly, twice, ay. This assimilation is not observed in the most careful styles of speech.

2) The manner of noise production is affected by assimilation in cas­es of a) lateral plosion and b) loss of plosion or incomplete plosion. The lateral plosion takes place, when a plosive is followed by /1/. In this case the closure for the plosive is not released till the off-glide for the second [l]. Incomplete plosion takes place in the clusters a) of two similar plosives like /pp,pb, tt, td, kk, kg/, or b) of two plosives with different points of articulation like:/kt/,/dg/, /db/, /tb/. So there is only one explosion for the two plosives.

3) Assimilation affects the place of articulation and the manner of noise production when the plosive, alveolar /tl is followed by the post-alveolar /r/. For example, in the word trip alveolar 1t1 be­comes post-alveolar and has a fricative release.

 

 


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