The second component of the Ph system of English
The second component is the syllabic structure of words. The syllabic structure of words has 2 aspects:
· syllable formation
· syllable division (деление)
Both aspects are sometimes designed by the cover term syllabication.
Lang-s may differ from one another both in syllable formation and syl division. Differences in syl formation involve differences in the compacity (соединение) of speech sounds to form syl in different positions. E.g. the cons [m] is syll in the E word rythm, whereas the similar Rus sound [м] is nonsyllabic in the same position in the Rus equivalent of the same word ритм.
Differences in syllabic division involve differences in the position of the point of syllable division or the syllasbic boundary and in the types of the resulting syllables mainly open and closed, e.g. [mani] in which the 1 syllable is closed and [мани] in which the 1 syll is pen.
In E differences in syl division may perform a distinctive function.
The articulatory and acoustic aspects of the E speech sounds. the resonator mech. the obstructer mech.
3) The air stream heading past through the larynx is now subject to further modification according to the shape assumed by the superglottal cavities of the pharynx and mouth and according to weather the nasal cavity is brought into action or not. So the resonator mech consists of the pharynx, the larynx, and the nasal cavity.
4) The obstructer mech consists of the tongue, the lips, the teeth, the soft palate with the uvula, the hard palate, the alveolar ridge.
The 4 mechanisms: the power, vibrator, resonator and the obstr work simultaneously and each speech sound is the result of the simultaneous work of all of them.
The third and the forth components of the Ph system of English
The third componentis the acsentual structure of its words as items of vocabulary.
The exentual structure of words has 3 aspects:
1.the physical nature of word acsent
2.the position of the acsent in dissyllabic and polysyllabic words.
3.the degrees of word acsent.
The physical nature of word acsent involves the use components of the sound matter or a combination of them to make a syllable in a word more promonent than the other syllables in it and pronounce a monosyllabic word with the same acustic characteristics which would make it most prominent if it were the acsented syllable of a dissyllabic or polysyllabic word, e.g. [po:t], [impo:t].
The position of the acsent of different degrees in dissylabic and polysyllabic words is an extremely important aspect. Especially in one with the socalled free word acsent, a lang in which the acsent may fall on any syllable in different words. as is the case in E and Russian, e.g. ‘dictionary, ho’tel, яблоко, звезда. In such lang-s word acsent performes not only the constitutive and recognitive functions, but also the word distinctive and form distinctive function, e.g. ‘import, im’port, ‘руки, ру’ки.
The 4th component is the international structure of sentences in it. International being understood in the broad sence.
The main principles of all current articulatory classifications of vow.
2 main principles of all currant articulatory classifications of vowels are based on the movements and positions of the tongue. In describing and classifying vowels the following parts of the tongue are referred to because of their great importance, as resonance modifiers:
1 the front of the tongue, which lays opposite the hard palate
2 the back of the tongue, which lays opposite the soft palate
3 the center of the tongue, which is the region where the front and the back meet.
The tip and blade of the tongue don’t play separate roles in vowel production. The complex movement of the tongue provides an articulatory bases for classifying vowels:
1) according to the horizontal movement of the tongue
2) according to the simultaneously vertical movements of the tongue.
Different opinions on the nature of the phoneme and its definition.
1 Бодуэн-де-Куртене defined the phoneme as a physical image of a sound.
2 The abstractional conception on the phoneme was originated by Фердинанд де Соссюр, the danish linguist Hjemslev. The abst view regards the phoneme independant of the phonemic properties.
3 Трубецкой, Блумфилд, Jacobson viewed the phoneme as the minimal sound units by which meanings may be differentiated. They stated that the features of the phoneme involved in the differentiation of words are called distinctive.
4 The physical view on the phoneme was originated by Jhones. He defined the phneme as a family of sounds, showing similarities. No member of the family can occur in the same phonetic context asany other member. This view was shared by Bloch and Treiger.
5 Щерба was the first to define the phoneme as a real, independent distinctive unit, which manifests itself in the form of allophones. Vasiliev developed his theory and wrote that a phoneme is a dialectical unity of 3 aspects: 1. material, real and objective, 2. abstractional, generalized, 3. functional. It serves to perform the following functions: constitutive, distinctive, recognitive. Vasiliev states that phoneme is material, real and objective, because it really exists in the material form of speech sounds, allophones. It is an objective reality , existing independently from our will or intention. It is an abstraction, because we make it from concrete realizations for classificatory purposes.
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