General American pronunciation

In the USA the most widespread type of lang is GA. Like RP in GB GA in America is the social standard: it is religionally neutral, it is used by radio, by TV, in science, it is spoken by educated Americans.

1no opposition between historically long and historically short.

2[i] may be obscured as in rabbit [rэеbэt]

3[έ] – lower than the RP [e]

4[эе] – long, mostly nasaliezed, may turn into [e] as in marry, [эе] may be used instead of [a:], ask, past

5[3] - retroflex какуминальный согласный in medial and terminal position, bird, better

6[i:] – ‘barred’ препятствовать [i] in sister, horses

7[a] instead of[o], doll, rob

8[o]instead of [o:] as in law

9[Λ] turns into [3r], e.g. [h3ri] – hurry.

10in GA the distinction between monopthongs and diphthongs is not very consistent последовательный.


Principal pecularities of General American cons – s.

1. voiceless, fricative, labiovelar[ʍ]

2. the GA [r] is more sonorous than the RP [r]. It is retroflex.

3. [l] – predominantly преимущественно dark

4. [t] – short, voiced, intermediate between [d] and [t]

5. glottal stop ?

6. [h] – voiced in intervocalic position, lost initially in unsterssed or weak forms within внутри a phrase.

7. [ju] may change into [t∫, dЗ ] in due, tune

8. [∫] – vocalized in asia

9. nasal twang налет as in man.



1) The lips. In the production of Russian vowels the lips are consid­erably protruded and rounded: /о, у/. In the articulation of the similar English vow protrusion does not take place.

(2) The bulk of the tongue. In the articulation of the English vowels the bulk of the tongue occupies more positions than in the production of the Russian vowels. When the the tongue moves in the horizontal direction it may occupy a fully front and a front-retracted, a fully back and a back-advanced position. Each of the three vertical positions of the tongue (high, mid, low) in English is subdivided into a narrow and broad variety. Rus vow are classified accord­ing to the vertical movement of the tongue they may be divided into: high — /и, ы, у/, mid — /э, о/ and low — /a/. According to the horizontal movement of the tongue Rus­sian vowels may be subdivided into: front — /и, э/, central — /ы, a/ and back — /o, y/.

 (3) The principle of the degree of tenseness in vowel classification is connected with the unchecked and checked character of the vowels.

(4) The length of the vowels. Long vowels in English are considered to be tense. There are no long vowels which can be opposed to short vowels in the Russian language.

 (5) The stability of articulation. There are monophthongs and diphthongoids in the Russian vowel system, but there are no diphthongs.

 (6) There are 6 vowel phonemes in Russian and 20 in English.

Given below are English vowels which have no counterparts in Russian:

(1) long and short vowels /i: — i/, /o: — o/, /u: — u/, /з:- з /, /a:— /\/;

(2) slightly rounded, but not protruded vowels /u:, o:/;

(3) vowels articulated with the "flat" position of the lips /i:, i, e, ei/;                                                              

(4) very low vowels, such as /æ, o, a:/;

 (5) front-retracted /i/and back-advanced /u, a:/;   

(6) central or mixed /з- з:/;                       

(7) checked and free vowels /siti/ /'m/\ni/ Russian сити, мани;

(8) diphthongs /ei, ai, oi, iз, аu, ou, εэ, uэ/.

An articulating English vowels Russian students can make the following mistakes:

(1) they do not observe the quantitative character of the long vowels;

(2) do not observe the qualitative difference in the articulation of such vowels as /i: — i/, /u: — u/, /o:- o/,

(3) replace the English vowels /i:, о, u, æ, / by the Russian vowels / и, о, у, а, э/;

(4) pronounce /i:, i, e, ei/ without the "flat position" of the lips;

(5) soften consonants which precede front vowels

(6) articulate /o, о:, u, u:, эu/ with the lips too much rounded and protruded;

(7) make the sounds /æ, o/ more narrow similarly to the Russian /э, о/;         

 (8) make both elements of the diphthongs equally distinct;

(9) pronounce initial vowels with a glottal stop.

Received pron.

Standart pronunciation is the pronunciation governed by the orthoepic norm. It is the pronunciation of educated circles. It is used by radio, television, religionally neutral. The social standart within Britain is the so-called recieved pronunciation. It is the teaching norm at schools and higher learning establishments of the Rus Federation. In Eng we distinguish conservative, general, advanced.

The phoneme [i] is little more open in GA and retracted than in RP. In GA it is often obscured.

The sound [έ]is lower than the RP [e] and resembles походить [эе]

The GA [эе] differs from the RP [эе]: it is used in words in which the letter a is followed by a cons other than r(answer), in GA {e} is used instead of [эе]([keri])

The GA [a] is more front than the RP. In contrast to the RP [a] the GA [a] has a different distribution hop, rob, doll, before [h,g] both [a], [o] (frog).

The total number of the RP and GA cons differ in one phoneme [ʍ]. The rest of the RP and GA inventory of cons phonemes coicides.

The [r] is less sonorous in RP than in GA. The GA [h] is similar to the RP.The GA [h] is frequently voiced in intervicalic position. In words like concave, conclude, enclose, encourage Americans use {n}, the RP speakers – [n], [h].



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