DIFFERENCES IN THE ARTICULATION BASES OF THE ENGLISH AND RUSSIAN CONSONANTS
Differences in the system of consonants in English and in Russian are the following:
(1) The English forelingual consonants are articulated with the apico-alveolar position of the tip of the tongue. The Russian forelingual consonants are mainly dorsal: in their articulation the tip of the tongue is passive and lowered, the blade is placed against the upper teeth. The Russian forelingual apical consonants are only: [л, л', ш, Ш', ж, ж`].
(2) Russian students often use the hard /ш, ж/ phonemes instead of the soft English /∫, З/. Palatalization is a phonemic feature in Russian. There is no opposition between palatalyzed — non-palatalyzed consonants in English. The soft colouring of the English /∫,t∫, dЗ, l, З/ is non-phonemic.
(3) In the articulation of /w/ the primary focus is formed by the lips, which are rounded but not protruded, as it happens when the Russian /y/ is pronounced. The bilabial /w/ which is pronounced with a round narrowing is very often mispronounced by Russians. They use the labiodental /в/ which is pronounced with a flat narrowing instead of the English /w/.
The primary focus in the articulation of "dark" [l]is formed by the tip of the tongue pressed against the teethridge in the initial position.
English voiceless plosives /p, t, k/ are aspirated, when followed by a stressed vowel and not preceded by /s/.
(4) The English voiceless fortis /p, t, k, f, s, ∫, tЗ/ are pronounced more energetically than similar Russian consonants.The English voiced consonants /b, d, g, v, d, z, З, dЗ/are not replaced by the corresponding voiceless sounds in final positions and before voiceless consonants.
(5) Consonant phonemes in English which have no counterparts in Russian are the following:
1. the bilabial sonorant /w/,
2. the dental consonants /ð,θ /,
3. the voiced affricate /dЗ/,
4. the post-alvcolar sonorant /r/,
5. the backlingual nasal sonorant /ŋ/,
6. the glottal /h/.
Consonant phonemes in Russian which have no counterparts in English are the following;
1. the palatalized consonants /п`, б', т', д `/.
2. the voiceless affricate /ц/,
3. the rolled sonorant /p/,
4. the backlingual voiceless /x/.
The most common mistakes are the following:
— dorsal articulation of the English /t, d/,
— the use of the Russian rolled /p/ instead of the English /r/,
— the use of the Russian /x/ instead of the English glottal /h/,
— mispronunciation of the English interdental [ð, θ]
— the use of the forelingual /n/ instead of the backlingual velar / ŋ /.
- the use of the Russian dark /ш , ж/ instead of the soft English /∫, З/,
- the use of the labio-dental /v, в/ instead of the bilabial /w/,
- weak pronunciation of voiceless fortis /p, t, k, f, s, ∫ , t∫/,
- devoicing of /b, d, g, v, ð, z, З, dЗ / in the terminal position
Articulatory and physiological classification of English consonants. Accord to the work of the vocal cords and the force of exhalation, active organs of speech and the place of abstraction.
Rus phenetitians classify con-s according to the following principles:
1work of the vocal cords and the force of exhalation
2active organs of speech and the place of obstruction
1. Accoring to the work of the vocal cords and the force of exhalation cons-s are subdevided into voiced and voiceless. Voiced: [b, d, g]; voiceless: [p, t, k,]. The force of exhalation and the degree of muscular tension are greater in the production of voiceless cons-s. Therefore they are called by the Latin word fortis, which means strong, energetic. Voiced cons-s are called lenis, which means soft, weak. Because the force of exhalation and the degree of muscular tension in their articulation are weaker, e.g.fortis: [p] – pipe, [t] – tight, Lenis: [b] – Bible, [d] – died.
The Eng cons-s [h, m, n, h, l, w, j, r] don’t enter into fortis-lenis oppositions.
2) According to the position of the of the active organs of speech consonants are classified into: labial, lingual, glottal.
Labcons – s are subdivided into:
a) Bylabial; b) Labio-dental.
a) are produced with both lips, they are the Eng [p, b, m, w], the Rus [п, п`, б, б`, м, м`].
b)are articulated with the lower lip against the edge of the upper teeth. They are The E [f, v], the R [ф, ф`, в, в`].
Lingual cons – s are subdivided into:
a) forelingual; b)mediolingual; c)backlingual
a) are articulated with the tip or the blade of the tongue, acc to the position of the tip of the tongue they maybe: dorsal, apical, cacuminal. Acc to the place of obstruction forelingual cons – s may be: interdental, dental, alveolar, post – alveolar, palato – alveolar.
Interdent cons – s are articulated with the tip of the tongue projected between the teeth [ð, Ө]. Dental cons – s are articulated with the blade of the tongue against the upper teeth, the R [т, т`, д, д`, с, с`, з, з`, л, л`, ц]. Alveolar cons – s are articulated with the tip of the tongue against the upper teeth ridge, e.g. the E [t, d, s, n, l]. Post – alveolar cons – s with the tip or the blade of the tongue against the back part of the teeth ridge, e.g. [r]. Polato – alveolar cons – s are articul with the tip or the blade of the tongue against the teeth ridge, the front part of the tongue raised towards the hard palate – two places of articulation, or forci, e.g. the E [t∫, dЗ ,∫ ,З] and the R [ш, ш`, ж, ч].
b) Mediolingual are produced with the front part of the tonque. They are always palatal. palatal consonants are articulated with the front part of the tonque raised high to the hard palate, [j].
c) Backlingual consonants are called velar, they are produced with the back part of the tonque raised towards the soft palate [k,g,h,], [х,х’, г,’].
The glottal consonant [h] is articulated in the glottis.
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