The first component of the Ph system of English
The Ph sys of Eng is a systemic combination of all the 4 components of the sound matter, which constitute the material forms of all the morphems, words, phrases and sentences and serve a speaker of the lang to express his thoughts, feelings, emotions.
The first component of the Ph structure of English is the sys of its segmental phonemes existing in the material form of their alophones constituted by the spectral, fundamental frequency, force and temporal components of the sound matter of lang in various combinations.
The systemic character of the phonemic component is reflected in various classifications of its phonemes in which the letters are devided first into 2 fundamental sound types – vowels and consonants – with futher subdivisione of each sound type according to the principles of vowel and cons classifications.
The phonemic component of the Ph structure of the E lang manifests itself not only in the sys of its phonemes as discrit (разрозненный) isolated units, but also in combinations of their allophones occuring in words and at the junction of words.
The combinations of allophones are also systemic in character, the allophones of the phoneme occure only in definite possitions, e.g. the E sounds [u, h] never occure at the beginning of a word, whereas the sounds [эе, h] never occure at the end of E word. There is not a single Russian word, which begins with the vowel [ы].
A typical combination of cons sounds that may occure at the beginning, in the middle or at the end of a word is called a cons cluster, the combination of vowels is sometimes refered to as a vowel chane. Clusters and chanes also occure in definit positions. Thus, the E clusters – [tl,dl] never occure at the beginning of words, whereas the similar Rus clusters [Тл,дл] never occure at the end of words, e.g. sadle, длань.
The occurence of the allophones of a phoneme in different positions in a word is called the distribution. Since morphemes, words, phrases and sentences consist of combinations of speech sounds which articulations merge with and interpenitrate (взаимопроникают) each other. It is also systemic in character because lang-s have regular rules of effecting articulatery vowel cons transitions, CV transitions, CC transitions, VV tran.
E.g. the character of the E short stressed vowels in an instance of effecting a VC trans, which is characteristic of E and isn’t used in Russian because Rus vowels are free [pen-i], [пе-ни].
The aspiration of E plosives [p,t,k] imidiatelly before a stressed vow and the unaspirated pronounsiation of the Rus coutyparts in thesame position as well as the politalisation of cons before front high vowels in Rus and the nonpalatalisied articulation of E cons in the same position are instances of 2 different ways of effecting CV transition, e.g. [phic], [пик].
CC tran may serve the loss of plosion by an E plosive immideately before another plosive and the retension (сохранение) of plosion by its Rus countypart, e.g. [эеcht], [акт].
2 different ways of effecting a VV tran maybe illustrated by the presence and absence of the glotal stop(твердый приступ) between vowels, e.g. the apple. Thus, the phonemic component of the Ph sys of E has 3 aspects:
1) The sys of its phonemes as discrit isolated units which may occure in speech as isolated sounds constituting monophonemic words and sometimes even sentences;
2) the distribution of the allophones of the phonemes
3) the methods of joining speech sounds together or the methods of effecting VC, CV, CC, VV transitions.
The articulatory and acoustic aspects of the E speech sounds. the power mechanism. the vibrator mech
The articulation of every speech sound and the transition from the articulation of 1 sound to the articulation of another are effected and controlled by the action of the muscles situated in the organs of speech involved. These muscles are activated by impulses sent from the brain. Some linguists such as Щерба and his follower Мутусевич associate the articulatory aspect of speech sounds with their biological aspect. On the one hand, the human brain is the original source of speech, and on the other, it perceives speech sounds coming from the external world.
Speech is impossible without these 4 mechanisms:
1the power mechanism
2the vibrator mech
3the resonator mech
4the obstructer mech
1) The function of the power mech consists in the supply of energy in the form of air preasure and in regulating the force of the air stream. The pow mech includes the following organs of respiration:
1 the diaphragm
2 the lungs
3 the brunchi
4 the windpipe
5 the glottis – the opening between the vocal chords
6 the larynx
7 the mouth cavity
8 the nasal cavity
Inhalation takes place because the chest expends due to the action of the diaphragm and chest muscles. As the result of this expansions the air pressure in the lungs becomes lower than the pressure of the surrounding atmospheric air and the later rushes into the lungs and fills them, so that the pressure is equalized.
Then the diaphragm and the chest muscles relaxed. The lungs are contracted (стянуты), the air pressure in them becomes greater than the pressure of the surrounding atmosphere and the air which is in the lungs rushes out forming a stream which passes through the bronchi, the wind pipe, the glottis and the mouth or hazel cavities. This is exhalation. Thus the process of breathing consists of 2 alternating phases: inhalation, exhalation.
2) The air stream provided by the lungs undergoes import modifications in the upper stages of the respiratory tract. First of all it passes through sets into action vibrator mech. Which is posed (находится) in the larynx. As the air is exhaled from the lungs it is fed under pressure into the larynx through the wind pipe. In addition to constituting the bases of the spectral and pitch components, the vocal cords as part of the vibr mech participate in forming its intensity component as well.
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