United Kingdom - Judicial system



The United Kingdom does not have a single body of law applicable throughout the realm. Scotland has its own distinctive system and courts; in Northern Ireland, certain spheres of law differ in substance from those operating in England and Wales. A feature common to all UK legal systems, however—and one that distinguishes them from many continental systems—is the absence of a complete code, since legislation and unwritten or common law are all part of the "constitution."

 

 The main civil courts in England and Wales are 218 county courts for small cases and the High Court, which is divided into the chancery division, the family division, and the Queen's Bench division (including the maritime and commercial courts), for the more important cases. Appeals from the county courts may also be heard in the High Court, though the more important ones come before the Court of Appeal; a few appeals are heard before the House of Lords, which is the ultimate court of appeal for civil cases throughout the United Kingdom. In Scotland, civil cases are heard at the sheriff courts (corresponding roughly to the English county courts) and in the Outer House of the Court of Session, which is the supreme civil court in Scotland; appeals are heard by the Inner House of the Court of Session. Trial by jury in civil cases is common in Scotland but rare in the rest of the United Kingdom.

 

 Criminal courts in England and Wales include magistrates' courts, which try less serious offenses (some 96% of all criminal cases) and consist most often of three unpaid magistrates known as justices of the peace, and 78 centers of the Crown Court, presided over by a bench of justices or, in the most serious cases, by a High Court judge sitting alone. All contested cases receive a jury trial. Cases involving persons under 17 years of age are heard by justices of the peace in specially constituted juvenile courts. Appeals may be heard successively by the Crown Court, the High Court, the Court of Criminal Appeal, and in certain cases by the House of Lords. In Scotland, minor criminal cases are tried without jury in the sheriff courts and district courts, and more serious cases with a jury in the sheriff courts. The supreme criminal court is the High Court of Justiciary, where cases are heard by a judge sitting with a jury; this is also the ultimate appeals court.

 

 All criminal trials are held in open court. In England, Wales, and Northern Ireland, 12-citizen juries must unanimously decide the verdict unless, with no more than two jurors dissenting, the judge directs them to return a majority verdict. Scottish juries of 15 persons are permitted to reach a majority decision and, if warranted, a verdict of "not proven." Among temporary emergency measures passed with the aim of controlling terrorism in Northern Ireland are those empowering ministers to order the search, arrest, and detention of suspected terrorists and permitting juryless trials for terrorist acts in Northern Ireland.

 

 Central responsibility for the administration of the judicial system lies with the lord chancellor (who heads the judiciary and also serves as a cabinet minister and as speaker of the House of Lords) and the home secretary (and the secretaries of state for Scotland and for Northern Ireland). Judges are appointed by the crown, on the advice of the prime minister, lord chancellor, or the appropriate cabinet ministries.

 

 The United Kingdom accepts the compulsory jurisdiction of the International Court of Justice with reservations.

 

 

Read more: http://www.nationsencyclopedia.com/Europe/United-Kingdom-JUDICIAL-SYSTEM.html#ixzz2FIqBYvfW

 

Describe Great Britain as a constitutional monarchy and its role and social influence.
 The UK is one of the few developed countries where a constitutional monarchy has survived with its ages-old customs, traditions and ceremonies. There is no written constitution in GB. There are 2 basic principles of the British constitution; THE ROLES OF LAW and THE ROLES OF CUSTOMS. In 1215 Magna Carta was accepted which was aimed to limit the powers of the king. In 1265 the 1st parliament was summoned. Since then British const, has evolved as a result of countless Acts of parliament. A constitutional monarch is one who can rule only with the support of parlament.. The Bill of Rights [1689) was a major legal step to constitutional monarchy.

Since 1689 the power of parliament has grown steadily, while the power of the monarch has weakened. Today the Queen reigns, though she doesn't rule. Being a constitutional monarch the Queen acts on the advice of her prime minister and doesn't make any major-political decisions. The Queen is not only the head of state, but also the symbol of the nation unity. The QUEEN-personifies the state, she is head of the executive, an integral part of legislature, head of the judiciary, the commander in chief of all armed forces, the supreme governor of the established Church of England the Anglican church and the personal Head of the Common wealth.

The functions of Queen:

1) Summoning, proroguing, dissolving Parliament

2) Giving royal assent to Bills passed by both Houses

3) Appointing every important office holder, including government ministers, judges, officers in armed forces etc.

4) Conferring peerages, knighthoods and other honours.

5) She appoints the Prime Minister to form a government of state.

6) In international affairs the Q has the power to declare war, make peace, recognize foreign states and governments etc., she is informed and consulted on every issue in national life.

7) Queen is Head of the Commonwealth where she is represented by the Governor-General appointed by her on the advice of the government of the country concerned and completely independent of the British government. The general public supports the idea of preserving the Royal family traditions. The latter has also become more flexible and open to public. The crown provides unity and stability to Britain and the Commonwealth.

Describe the structure and composition of the British Parliament. The reform of the House of Lords and its role. The House of Commons, composition and role.
There are 3 elements of the Br. Parliament - the Queen and the 2 Houses of Parliament, (the House of Lords and the elected House of Commons). These elements ace separate, constituted on different principles and meet only on occasions of symbolic significance. The supreme legislative authority in GB, parliament, resides in Westminster Palace, and all its power is concentrated in the British Constitution.

 Members of parliament are elected at general election which is usually held every 5 years. The arrangement of seating in both Houses reflects the party system. Both debating chambers are rectangular in shape and have at one end the seat of the Speaker, and the other end a technical barrier. Leaders of the Government and the Opposition sit on the front benches of their respective to the seat of the Speaker.

 The House of Lords consists of Lords Spiritual (senior bishops) and Lords Temporal (lay peers). Members are not elected; the House of Lords underwent a major reform in 1999. The hereditary lords or peers lost the right to sit in the House of Lords. The number of Conservative peers reduced. The procedure of the House of Lords is rather informal and is comparable to that of the House of Commons. 

The Lord Chancellor presides over the House as its Speaker. There is no Minister of Justice but the Lord Chancellor performs some of its functions. The House of Lords consists of 675 members. The House of Lords also includes ministers, government Whips, the Leader of the main opposition party and 2 Chairmen of the Committees. 

The House of Commons is elected by the adult population. Consists of 646 MPs. The chief officer of the House of Commons is the speaker. He is elected by the House at the beginning of each Parliament. His chief function is to preside over the House in its debate. When elected. The Speaker must not belong to any party.

The House of Commons has 6 Administrative and executive departments: 1) of the Clerk of the House 2) of the Sergeant at Arms 3) of the Library 4} of the official Report 5) Administration Dep. 6) Refreshment Dep. The 6 administrative Departments are under the supervision of The House of Commons Commission composed by the MPs, and chaired by the Speaker

 

A Justice of the Peace (JP) is a puisne judicial officer elected or appointed by means of a commission (Letters Patent) to keep the peace. Depending on the jurisdiction, they might dispense summary justice or merely deal with local administrative applications in common law jurisdictions. Justices of the Peace are appointed or elected from the citizens of the jurisdiction in which they serve, and are (or were) usually not required to have a formal legal education in order to qualify for the office. Some jurisdictions have varying forms of training for JPs (for example Arizona, United States; Victoria, Australia; Canada and the United Kingdom).

 

The United States Electoral College is the institution that officially elects the President and Vice President of the United States every four years. The President and Vice President are not elected directly by the voters. Instead, they are elected indirectly by "electors" who are elected by popular vote on a state-by-state basis.[1] Electors are apportioned to each state and the District of Columbia, but not to territorial possessions of the United States, such as Puerto Rico and Guam. The number of electors in each state is equal to the number of members of Congress to which the state is entitled.[2] The Twenty-third Amendment has always resulted in the District of Columbia having three electors. There are 538 electors, based on there being 435 representatives and 100 senators, plus the three electors from the District of Columbia.

 

Give an account of the main functions of the Parliament outlining the process of passing a bill. Explain the term Devolution and its significance.
The main functions of the Parliament: to pass laws, to provide the means of carrying on the work of Government policy and administration, to debate the most important political issues of the day. Nevertheless, the principal duty is legislation, making laws. In the past Legislation was initiated from both sides of the House: from the government and from the opposition. But in present-day practice almost all bills are brought forward by the Government in power. Bills may be introduced in either House, unless they deal with finance or representation, when they are always introduced in the Commons. The process of passing bills is the same in the House of Lords as in the House of Commons.

 On introduction, the bill receives a formal 1 Reading. It is not yet printed. The Clerk of the House reads out only the short title, of the bill and the Minister responsible for it names a day of a Second Reading. It is then printed and published. After a period of time it may be given a 2nd Reading as a result of a debate on its general merits or principles. Then each clause of the bill is considered and voted on. Then it is formally reported to the House by the Chairman and further, debate takes place. Finally the Bill is submitted for a 3rd Reading. Then, if passed, it is sent to the Lords from the Commons or from Common's- to Lord’s. All bills are sent to the Sovereign for Royal Assent, after this the bill becomes a law and is known as an Act of Parliament.

 Devolution. The power in Britain was decentralized after the labor government came to power at the 1957. Their program included plans for a parliament in Scotland, assemblies in Hales and House of Ireland and regional development agencies in England.

Barristers & Solicitors

 

Lawyer - Law´yer - Noun - (pronounced loyur) a professional person authorised to practice law; conducts lawsuits or gives legal advice. It is a general term which includes attorneys, counsellors, solicitors, barristers and advocates.

 

"Lawyer" - amicus curiae, attorney, attorney-at-law, counsellor, counsel, advocate, legal advisor, jurist, counsellor-at-law, prosecutor, legist, special pleader, friend at court, intercessor, proctor, procurator, pettifogger. Slang = ambulance chaser, mouthpiece, shyster. 

 

 

 

Barrister - bar´ris`ter - Noun - a British lawyer who speaks in the higher courts of law. (http://www.thefreedictionary.com/barrister)

 

Solicitor - So`lic´it`or - Noun - a British lawyer who gives legal advice and prepares legal documents. (http://www.thefreedictionary.com/solicitor)

 

A Barrister also termed as Barrister-at-Law or Bar-at-Law is a member of one of the two classes of lawyer found in many common law jurisdictions with split legal professions. Barristers specialize in courtroom advocacy, drafting legal pleadings and giving expert legal opinions. They can be contrasted with solicitors – the other class of lawyer in split professions – who have more direct access with clients, and may do transactional-type legal work. Barristers are rarely hired by clients directly but instead are retained (or instructed) by solicitors to act on behalf of clients.

 

The historical difference between the two professions – and the only essential difference in England and Wales today – is that a solicitor is an attorney, which means they can act in the place of their client for legal purposes (as in signing contracts) and may conduct litigation on their behalf by making applications to the court, writing letters in litigation to the client's opponent and so on. A barrister is not an attorney and is usually forbidden, either by law or professional rules or both, from "conducting" litigation. This means that while the barrister speaks on the client's behalf in court, he or she can do so only when instructed by a solicitor or certain other qualified professional clients, such as patent agents.

 

Many countries with common law legal systems, such as New Zealand, allow for the roles of barrister and solicitor to be combined into one person. In countries with civil law or other kinds of legal systems the legal profession is often separated into divisions but these divisions rarely shadow those of barristers and solicitors.

 

Discuss the electoral system. Give an evaluation of the «majority electoral system» existing in Great Britain? Comment on the latest general elections. Change of government in 2007. Reasons.

The House of Commons is the only chamber in the British Parliament which is elected at General Elections. British subjects and citizens can vote provided they are 18 and over, resident in the UK, registered in the annual register of electors and not subject to any disqualifications. 

The UK is divided into 659 electoral districts, called constituencies of approximately equal population and each const, elects the member of the House of Commons. No person can be elected except under the name of the party, and there is little chance except as the candidate backed by either the Labor or the Conservative party. In every constituency each of the 2 parties has a local organization, which chooses the candidate, and then helps him to conduct his local campaign, in a British election the candidate who wins the most votes in elected, even if he doesn't get as many as the combined votes of the other candidates. The winner takes it all. This is known as notorious majority electoral system that is often criticized for being unfair to smaller parties that have very little chance to send their candidate to the Commons. It is often argued that the British system of elections is so unfair that it ought to be changed, by the introduction of a form of proportional representation. It aims to give each party a proportion of seats in Parliament corresponding to the proportion of votes it receives at the election. As soon as the results of general elections are known, it is clear which party will form the government. The leader of the majority party becomes Prime Minister and the new House of Commons meets. The chief officer of the House of Commons is the Speaker. He is elected by the House at the beginning of each parliament. His chief function is to preside over the House in the debate. The Speaker must not belong to any party. (G Brown)

1.1 New Year’s Eve & New Year’s Day

 • New Year’s Eve is eve before New Year’s Day

 • People traditionally take a shower in the fountains on Trafalgar Square

 • in Scotland called Hogmanay

 

 1.2 Valentine’s day

 • many people send a card to the one they love or someone whom they have fallen in love with

 • these cards are usually unsigned - so people spent a lot of time on trying to guess who has sent them

 

 1.3 Lent

 • the day before lent is called is Pancake Day (Shrove Tuesday) - people usually eat pancakes

 • pancake is a flat cake made from thin batter (milk, flour and eggs) and cooked on both sides usually in a frying pan

 • in some towns hold pancake races on this day - people run through the streets holding a frying pan and throwing the pancake in the air and who drops the pancake looses the race

 • Lent starts with Ash Wednesday

 • this habit refers to the time when Christ went into desert and fasted for forty days

 • today this habit is not so usual - people are not able to stay forty days without food - and from this habit is today only eating pancakes

 

 1.4 Easter

 • first Sunday after first spring full moon

 • Palm Sunday - the Sunday before Easter celebrated in commemoration of Christ’s triumphal entry into Jerusalem

 • Good Friday - eating cross buns - bought in bakers, toasted and eaten with butter

 • Easter Sunday - celebrate the idea of new birth - giving each other chocolate eggs

 • Easter Monday (holiday) people travel to seaside - watch sport events such as football or horse-racing

 

 1.5 May Day

 • 1st May - celebrate the end of winter

 • public holiday in honour of working people

 • people made Maypoles - tall ribbon-wreathed pole - usually forming a centres for dances

 • dancers are dancing traditional dances such as a Morris dance

 

 1.6 Halloween

 • Hallowe’en means “holy evening” - old Celtic feast

 • 31st October - the eve of All Saints’ Day or All Hallows Day

 • people mainly children are dressed up in disguise to pretend that they are ghosts or witches

 • connected with witches and ghosts

 • people cut horrible faces from potatoes, gourd and other vegetables and put candle inside, which shines through the eyes, nose and mouth

 • outside the house are huge, orange, carved pumpkins with candles lit inside

 • some games such as trying to eat an apple from a bucket of water without using hands

 

 1.7 Guy Fawkes Night

 • 5th November - from history (see )

 • people made fireworks and bonfires and throw a dummy into it - dummy is called “guy” (like Guy Fawkes)

 • children collect money to have fireworks - they say “Penny for the guy”

 • now many fireworks are organised by the local councils to avoid the danger of accidents

 • history: In 1605 King James I. was on the throne. As a Protestant, he was very unpopular with Roman Catholics. Some of them planned to blow up the Houses of Parliament on 5th November of that year, when the King was going to open Parliament. Under the House of Lords they had stored thirty-six barrels of gun powder , which were to be exploded by a man called Guy Fawkes. However one of the plotters spoke about these plans and Fawkes was discovered, arrested and later hanged.

 

 1.8 Remembrance Sunday

 • formerly Armistice Day, or Poppy Day

 • the Sunday nearest to 11th November - commemorating the armistice of 11th November 1918 terminating the First World War, and all those who died in the two World Wars

 • a two-minute silence is observer at 11 am

 • people wear an artificial poppy on that day - originally the poppies symbolised the soldiers who died in the cornfields of Flanders , Belgium, in the First World War

 

 1.9 Christmas

 • 24th December - Christmas Eve

 • 25th December - Christmas Day with Christmas morning

 • 26th December - Boxing Day

 • most important festival of the year - it combines Christian celebration of the birth of Christ and traditional festivities of winter

 • traditions - most important is giving presents; Christmas tree came from Norway - in the corner of the front room, glittering with coloured lights and decorations; families decorate their houses with brightly coloured paper or holly

 • on the Sunday before Christmas many churches hold a carol service where special hymns are sung

 • sometimes carol-singers can be heard on the streets as they collect money for charity

 • on Christmas Eve children let a long sock or stocking at the end of their bed and they hope that Father Christmas (Santa Claus) will come down the chimney during the night and bring them small presents, fruit and nuts - no traditional celebration

 • at Christmas morning are presents found under the Christmas tree

 • on Christmas Day the family will sit down to a big turkey dinner followed by Christmas pudding

 • they will probably pull a cracker with another member of the family - it will make a loud crack and a coloured hat, small toy and joke will fall out

 • afternoon they watch the Queen on television as she delivers her traditional Christmas message to the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth

 • at tea-time people can eat a piece of Christmas cake or eat hot mince pie

 • on Boxing Day people visit friends and relatives or some of the many sporting events

 • on Boxing Day it is also usual to give a present of money to tradesmen - the milkman, the postman, etc.

 • people usually go to a pantomime on that day - based on traditional fairy tale, especially for children - these tales come from all over the world - “The Sleeping Beauty” from Persia, “Little Red Ridding Hood” was written by Brothers Grimm of Germany, etc.

 

 1.10 Some other special days

 • Twelfth Night - 6th January

 • April Fool’s Day - 1st April

 • Mother’s Day or Mothering Sunday - second Sunday in May

 • Father’s Day - third Sunday in June

 • Bank Holidays - public holidays when banks, post offices, shops and some attractions are closed. Bank holidays remain constant each year, i.e. they always occur on Monday (the late Spring Bank Holiday is the last Monday in May), but the date changes each year

 • Midsummer Dar - 24th June - ceremonies in honour of the Sun have been held from the earliest times. This day is preceded by Midsummer Night when supernatural beings are said to wander about.

 

Her Majesty's Government of the United Kingdomof Great Britain and Northern Ireland,[1] commonly referred to as HM Government (HMG) or the British Government, is the central government of the United Kingdom.[2]

 

The Government is led by the Prime Minister, who selects all the remaining Ministers. The Prime Minister and the other most senior Ministers belong to the supreme decision-making committee, known as the Cabinet.[2] The Government Ministers are all members of Parliament, and are accountable to it. The Government is dependent on Parliament to make primary legislation,[3] which means that in practice a government must seek re-election at least every five years.[4] The monarch selects the Prime Minister as the leader of the party most likely to command a majority in Parliament.[5]

 

Under the British constitution, executive authority lies with the monarch, although this authority is exercised only by, or on the advice of, the Prime Minister and the Cabinet.[6] The Cabinet members advise the monarch as members of the Privy Council. They also exercise power directly as leaders of the Government Departments.

 

The current Prime Minister is David Cameron, leader of the Conservative Party, who was appointed by Queen Elizabeth II on 11 May 2010 following the UK General Election on 6 May 2010. The election failed to provide a decisive result, with the Conservatives as the biggest party within a hung parliament. A coalition government was formed on the 12th of May between the Conservatives and the Liberal Democrats (see Cameron ministry).

 

As the "Head of Her Majesty's Government" the modern Prime Minister leads the Cabinet (the Executive). In addition the Prime Minister leads a major political party and generally commands a majority in the House of Commons (the lower house of the legislature). As such the incumbent wields both legislative and executive powers. Under the British system there is a unity of powers rather than separation.[3] In the House of Commons, the Prime Minister guides the law-making process with the goal of enacting the legislative agenda of their political party. In an executive capacity the Prime Minister appoints (and may dismiss) all other cabinet members and ministers, and co-ordinates the policies and activities of all government departments, and the staff of the Civil Service. The Prime Minister also acts as the public "face" and "voice" of Her Majesty's Government, both at home and abroad. Solely upon the advice of the Prime Minister, the Sovereign exercises many statutory and prerogative powers, including high judicial, political, official and Church of England ecclesiastical appointments; the conferral of peerages, knighthoods, decorations and other honours.[4]

The Shadow Cabinet isa senior group of opposition spokespeople in the Westminster system of government who together under the leadership of the Leader of the Opposition form an alternative cabinet to the government's, whose members shadow or mark each individual member of the Cabinet.[1] Members of a shadow cabinet are often but not always appointed to a Cabinet post if and when their party gets into government. It is the Shadow Cabinet's responsibility to pass criticism on the current government and its respective legislation, as well as offering alternative policies.

 

The Lords Spiritual of the United Kingdom, also called Spiritual Peers, are the 26 bishops of the established Church of England who serve in the House of Lords along with the Lords Temporal. The Church of Scotland, which is Presbyterian, is not represented by spiritual peers. The Anglican churches in Wales and Northern Ireland are no longer established churches and are therefore not represented either.

 

The Commonwealth of Nations, normally referred to as the Commonwealth and formerly known as the British Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of 54 independent member states. All members except Mozambique and Rwanda were part of the British Empire, out of which the Commonwealth developed.

 

The member states cooperate within a framework of common values and goals, as outlined in the Singapore Declaration. These include the promotion of democracy, human rights, good governance, the rule of law, individual liberty, egalitarianism, free trade, multilateralism and world peace.[1] The Commonwealth is not a political union, but an intergovernmental organisation in which countries with diverse social, political and economic backgrounds are regarded as equal in status.

 

Activities of the Commonwealth are carried out through the permanent Commonwealth Secretariat, headed by the secretary-general, and biennial meetings of Commonwealth Heads of Government. The symbol of their free association is the Head of the Commonwealth, currently held by Queen Elizabeth II. Elizabeth II is also monarch, separately and independently, of 16 Commonwealth members, which are known as the "Commonwealth realms".

 

The Commonwealth is a forum for a number of non-governmental organisations, collectively known as the Commonwealth Family, which are fostered through the intergovernmental Commonwealth Foundation. The Commonwealth Games, the Commonwealth's most visible activity,[2] are a product of one of these organisations. These organisations strengthen the shared culture of the Commonwealth, which extends through common sports, literary heritage, and political and legal practices.[3] Due to this, Commonwealth countries are not considered to be "foreign" to one another.[4] Reflecting this, diplomatic missions between Commonwealth countries are designated as high commissions rather than embassies.

 

In 1884, while visiting Australia, Lord Rosebery described the changing British Empire, as some of its colonies became more independent, as a "Commonwealth of Nations".[5] Conferences of British and colonial prime ministers occurred periodically from the first one in 1887, leading to the creation of the Imperial Conferences in 1911.[6] The Commonwealth developed from the Imperial Conferences. A specific proposal was presented by Jan Christiaan Smuts in 1917 when he coined the term "the British Commonwealth of Nations," and envisioned the "future constitutional relations and readjustments in essence" at the all-important Versailles Conference of 1919 by delegates from the dominions as well as Britain.[7][8] The term first received imperial statutory recognition in the Anglo-Irish Treaty of 1921.[citation needed]

 

In the Balfour Declaration at the 1926 Imperial Conference, Britain and its dominions agreed they were "equal in status, in no way subordinate one to another in any aspect of their domestic or external affairs, though united by common allegiance to the Crown, and freely associated as members of the British Commonwealth of Nations". These aspects to the relationship were formalised by the Statute of Westminster in 1931. The statute applied to Canada without the need for ratification, but Australia, New Zealand, and Newfoundland had to ratify the statute for it to take effect. Newfoundland never did, as on 16 February 1934, with the consent of its parliament, the Government of Newfoundland voluntarily ended, and governance reverted to direct control from London. Newfoundland later joined Canada as its tenth province in 1949.[9] Australia and New Zealand ratified the Statute in 1942 and 1947 respectively.[1

 

In the United Kingdom, life peers are appointed members of the peerage, whose titles cannot be inherited, in contrast to hereditary peers. Nowadays life peerages, always of baronial rank, are created under the Life Peerages Act 1958 and entitle the holders to seats in the House of Lords, presuming they meet qualifications such as age and citizenship. The legitimate children of a life peer take the privilege of children of hereditary peers, being entitled to style themselves with the prefix 'The Honourable'.

Give a general survey of the organization of the educational system of Great Britain commenting on the public and private sectors and the main types of schools. The comprehensive school and its advantage.
The educational system of GB has developed for over a 100 years. 3 partners are responsible for the education service: central government- the Department of Education and Science(DES)(assisted by Her Majesty's inspectorate), local education authorities (LEAs) provision day-to-day running of the schools and colleges in their areas, the recruitment and payment of the teachers, the head (a Chief Education Officer) and schools themselves. The legal basis for this partnership is supplied by the 1944 Education Act. Compulsory education in GB begins at the age of 5, and the minimum school leaving age is 16. Education is provided both in publicly maintained(state) schools(no tuition fees are payable)-'public sector', and in private independent schools-private sector (have to pay)- Education within the state school system comprises either 2 stages - primary and secondary, or 3 stage-first schools, middle schools, upper schools. Nursery education- in nursery schools or in nursery classes attached to primary schoolchildren 3-5, some sort of play, activity, as Car as possible of an educational kind). Primary school (5-11) Middle school (8-14) is a sort of a compromise between primary c secondary educations. The Upper School keeps middle school leavers until the age of 18. This 3-stage system is becoming more and more popular.

Secondary education is compulsory up to the age of 16, 6 pupils may stay here until they are 10. Secondary schools are much larger than primary and most children go to comprehensive schools (11-18)- admit children of all abilities in a given area and provide a wide range of different courses.

3types:1)11-18. 2) Middle School leavers 12, 13, 14 -18, 3) the age group 11-16. In some areas children moving from Primary to Secondary education are still selected for certain types of school according to their current level of academic attainment.

These are:

Grammar schools provide a manly academic education for 11-18 age groups preparing for higher education.

Technical schools- a manly academic education for 11-18 age groups, place emphasis on technical subjects.

Secondary modern schools offer a more general education with a practical bias up to the minimum school-leaving age of 16(cannot enter the university but start work).

There is special school adapted for the physically and mentally handicapped children (5-16). These schools and their classes are more generously staffed and provide different forms of treatment. They can be both state and private. Though limited in number, the largest and most important of the independent schools are the public schools (12-13) on the basis of the strict selection. They are fee-charging & very expensive; their standards for entries are very high, & more concerned with examinations & universities. The pupils are the children of the rich parents. The principal examinations taken by secondary school pupils at the age of 16 are those leading to the General Certificate of Secondary Education. The chief examinations are leading to the General Certificate of Education Advanced level.

Admission to universities is by examination or interviews. Applications are sent to the Universities & Colleges Admission Services - you can list up to 5 universities or Colleges.

Trafalgar Square is a public space and tourist attraction in central London, built around the area formerly known as Charing Cross. It is in the borough of the City of Westminster. At its centre is Nelson's Column, which is guarded by four lion statues at its base. There are a number of statues and sculptures in the square, with one plinth displaying changing pieces of contemporary art. The square is also used for political demonstrations and community gatherings, such as the celebration of New Year's Eve.

 


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