Outline the Norman Conquest and the establishment of feudalism in England and further consolidation of the English state. The main dates in the formation of the U.K.

The last of the invaders to come to Britain were the Normans from France. In 1066 Duke William of Normandy, who claimed the English throne, defeated the English at the battle of Hastings on the 14th of October in 1066 and established his rule in the country as king of England. He is known as William the Conqueror. The Normans settled in the country, and the French language became the official language of the ruling class for the next three centuries. This explains the great number of French words in English. The monarchy which was established by William and his successors was, in general, more effective. The feudal system contributed to the growth of power of the state, and little by little England began to spread its power. Wales was the first to be conquered by England. Before they were conquered by the English in the 13th century the different Welsh tribes were continually fighting one another. In 1282 Prince Llewelyn was killed in battle and the King of England, Edward I started a successful campaign to conquer Wales. Eventually the country was subdued, but the English never felt safe there because of Welsh opposition. This explains why the English built so many castles here of which most famous is Caernarvon located in North Wales. At the same time Edward I of England made his eldest son, his heir, bear the title Prince of Wales in 1301. Though Wales was conquered by England, the Welsh continued to struggle for their independence. At the beginning of the 15th century there was a great rising, but the situation was seriously changed when in 1485 - the English throne passed to Henry VII of the Welsh House of Tudor. In 1536 and 1542 Henry VIII brought Wales under the English parliament through special Acts of Union. Since the 16th century Wales has been governed from London. In today's Government there is a special department and minister for Welsh affairs. Since 1999 Wales formed its own Parliament, the Welsh Assembly, which consists of 60 members. Scotland managed to be independent for quite a long time, though the English tried hard to conquer it. In the 14th century Robert Bruce led the struggle against the English, but he was defeated by the English king Edward I and had to hide on an island between Scotland and Ireland. Here Bruce found shelter in a cave. He was in despair. He had been defeated, his friends were scattered, and the English were strong as ever. As he lay on the cave's hard floor, thinking how difficult it would be to win his struggle, he saw a spider above him spinning its web. Again and again the spider slipped from the web, and again and again it climbed up a line of the web until the whole web was completed. The example with the spider gave Bruce new strength. He managed to organize a new army and defeated the English. However, some years later Edward II, the new English king, decided to attack Robert Bruce in Scotland. He managed to cross the border and reach the Bannock Burn or stream just south of Stirling Castle, which was not taken by the Scots and remained in English hands. Here in the battle of Bannockburn (1314) the English were very seriously defeated, and Scotland continued to be independent for the next three centuries. In 1603 Queen Elizabeth I died and, as she had no children, was succeeded by James Stuart, James VI of Scotland, who became James I of England. He was the son of Mary Queen of Scots, cousin of Elizabeth I. With this union England, Wales and Scotland became known as Great Britain. However, Scotland continued to be quite independent in the 17th century. The final unification took place in 1707, when both sides agreed to form a single parliament in London for Great Britain, although Scotland continued to keep its own system of law, education and have an independent church. Today Scotland is part of the United Kingdom. There is a special minister in the Government, the Secretary of State for Scotland. In 1999 Scotland restored its independent Parliament of 129 members. This process which took place in Wales and Scotland is known as devolution, which means granting greater autonomy to the national parts of the United Kingdom.

The main dates in the formation of The British state:

664 – the adoption of Christianity in England contributed to the unification of the country. 829 – the Saxon kingdoms fought one against the other. Wessex became the leading kingdom and united the rest of England in the fights against the Danes. The Greater part of the country was united under the name England. 1282 – Wales actually subdued by the Norman English.

1536, 1542 – Hanry VIII brought Wales under the English Parliament through special acts of union.

1603 – Monarchial union of England and Scotland.

1707 – Formation of GB.

1169 – Hanry II of England started an invasion of Ireland. A large part of Ireland came under the control of the invaders but there was not much direct control from England during the middle ages. In the 16th century Henry VIII quarreled with Rome and declared himself head of the Anglican (Protestant) church. Ireland remained catholic. So Henry VIII tried to force Irish catholic to become Anglican. He punished them by taking a lot of their land. This policy was continued by his daughter Elizabeth I. The Northern Province of Ulster became the centre of resistance which was crushed by the English in 1607. After this events Ulster became an area of settlement by protesting immigrants from Scotland and England. The “plantation” of Ulster began. 23 new towns were built in Ulster to protect the protestant settlers known as plunters. The Irish catholic were driven from their lands. The population of Ulster became protestant in majority. At the end 18th century there was a mass risen against the English colonizers which was crushed by the English army. In 1801 a forced union was established with Britain. After a long and bitter struggle the Southern part of Ireland became a free state. In 1922 Ulster where the protestants were in majority remained part of the UK. 1998-99 – Devolution (granting of independence to the national parts of UK).


The Act of Supremacy Закон Верховности (1 Eliz 1 c 1), also referred to as the Act of Supremacy 1558,[3] is an Act of the Parliament of England, passed under the auspices of Queen Elizabeth I of England. It replaced the original Act of Supremacy 1534 issued by Elizabeth's father, Henry VIII, which arrogated ecclesiastical authority to the monarchy, and which had been repealed by Mary I of England. Along with the Act of Uniformity 1558 it made up what is generally referred to as the Elizabethan Religious Settlement. (The Acts were actually passed in 1559, but Parliamentary convention was to date Acts according to the year in which Parliament began to sit, rather than the date of Royal Assent.)


The whole Act, so far as unrepealed, except section 8, was repealed by section 1 of, and Part II of the Schedule to, the Statute Law (Repeals) Act 1969.


This Act was partly in force in Great Britain at the end of 2010.[4]


“I A. B. do utterly testify and declare in my conscience, That the Queen's Highness is the only Supream Governor of this Realm, and of all other her Highness Dominions and Countries, as well in all Spiritual or Ecclesiastical Things or Causes, as Temporal; and that no foreign Prince, Person, Prelate State or Potentate, hath or ought to have any Jurisdiction, Power, Superiority, Preheminence, or Authority Ecclesiastical or Spiritual, within this Realm; and therefore I do utterly renounce and forsake all foreign Jurisdictions, Powers, Superiorities and Authorities, and do promote, that from henceforth I shall bear faith and true Allegiance to the Queen’s Highness, her Heirs and lawful Successors, and to my Power shall assist and defend all Jurisdictions, Preheminences, Privileges and Authorities granted or belonging to the Queen’s Highness, her Heirs and Successors, or united and annexed to the Imperial Crown of this Realm. So help me God, and by the Contents of this Book.”


The House of Plantagenet ( /plænˈtædʒənət/ plan-TAJ-ə-nət) was a royal dynasty that produced the fourteen Kings of England who ruled England for the 331 years from 1154 until 1485. The male line Plantagenets descended from the Angevin Counts of Anjou. It is claimed the name arose because Geoffrey V of Anjou wore a sprig of the common broom in his hat; this became his 12th century nickname Plantegenest [1] derived from the broom's Latin name Planta genista. His nickname was adopted from 1460 by Richard of York, 3rd Duke of York, as though it had been an hereditary surname for the whole dynasty, to legitimize his monarchical ambition.[2]


Geoffrey Plantegenest married the Empress Matilda, the daughter of Henry I of England, who vied with Stephen of Blois for the English throne for a twenty-year period in what became known as the Anarchy. After Stephen's death in 1154 the English crown passed to Henry II, Geoffrey and Matilda's son, under the terms of the Treaty of Winchester. By this and his marriage to Eleanor of Aquitaine Henry accumulated a vast and complex feudal holding, the so-called Angevin Empire, that at its peak stretched from the Pyrenees to Ireland and the border with Scotland.


The Royal House ended in 1399 as the dynasty splintered into two competing cadet branches: The House of Lancaster and The House of York. Richard III, the last Plantagenet king, was killed in the Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485 and the legitimate male line became extinct with the execution of his nephew, Edward, Earl of Warwick in 1499.


The era was typified by intermittent but frequent conflict between the Plantagenets, Roman Catholic Church, the English Barons, the Kings of France, the Welsh, Scots, Irish and in later years a developing middle class. This included what is now called the Anarchy, First Barons' War, the Second Barons' War, the Hundred Years' War, the Peasants' Revolt, Jack Cade's rebellion and the Wars of the Roses. To be a successful Plantagenet monarch required military success and some of the Plantagenets were renowned as warriors. Richard I of England had distinguished himself in the Third Crusade. Edward I of England was known as "Hammer of the Scots". This comes from the Latin inscription on his tomb, which reads Edwardus Primus Scottorum Malleus hic est, 1308. Pactum Serva ("Here is Edward I, Hammer of the Scots, 1308. Keep the Vow").[3] Edward, the Black Prince gained fame at the fields of Crécy and Poitiers, but died on campaign before succeeding to the crown. Henry V of England left his mark with a famous victory against larger numbers at the Battle of Agincourt.Out of this conflict largely driven by the English Barons' reluctance to support the Plantagenet's personal continental ambition developed lasting social developments sector such as Magna Carta. This was often driven by weakness in the Plantagenet position forcing them to compromise in accepting constraints on their power granting rights and privileges in return for financial and military support.Winston Churchill, for example, argued that "[w]hen the long tally is added, it will be seen that the British nation and the English-speaking world owe far more to the vices of John than to the labours of virtuous sovereigns".[4]


The reign of the Plantagenet Kings saw a re-adoption of what was to become the English language. The Norman and Angevin aristocracy had little or no understanding of the language of the greater part of the population. They spoke Norman French or the Langues D'Oc and Latin was the language of record. In 1362, at the high point of the Plantagenet kingship Edward III made English the official language of royal courts and parliaments with the Statute of Pleading.[5] English was transformed from the language of serfs into one fit for poetry and scholarship. Among others the Pearl Poet, Geoffrey Chaucer, John Gower and William Langland created a distinctive English culture and art.


The Plantagenets transformed the English landscape with significant building and patronage of the arts. Westminster Abbey, Windsor, York Minster, the Welsh Castles and the golden age of cathedral building in the Gothic style are the most significant examples of this. Richard I founded Portsmouth as a military town, King John Liverpool and Henry III Harwich. London prospered and brick building was reintroduced for the first time since the Romans.

-Magna Carta was arguably the most significant early influence on the extensive historical process that led to the rule of constitutional law today in the English speaking world.

 - Magna Carta influenced the development of the common law and many constitutional documents, including the United States Constitution.


 summarizing all of that. it means the Magna Carta helped shape the bill of rights,constitution,the amendments,declaration of independence etc. it influenced the type of government all nations have. ex:USA is a republican-democratic country

 republican=ppl choose a representive to represent them in government.

 Democrat-ppl rule the gov't


The Tudor dynasty or House of Tudor was a European royal house of Welsh origin[1] descended from Prince Rhys ap Tewdwr that ruled the Kingdom of England and its realms, including the Lordship of Ireland, later the Kingdom of Ireland, from 1485 until 1603. Its first monarch was Henry VII, a descendant through his mother of a legitimised branch of the English royal House of Lancaster. The Tudor family rose to power in the wake of the Wars of the Roses, which left the House of Lancaster, to which the Tudors were aligned, extinct.


Henry Tudor was able to establish himself as a candidate not only of the traditional Lancastrian supporters, but of discontented supporters of the rival House of York, and rose to capture the throne in battle, becoming Henry VII. His victory was reinforced by his marriage to Elizabeth of York, symbolically uniting the former warring factions under a new dynasty. The Tudors extended their power beyond modern England, achieving the full union of England and the Principality of Wales in 1542 (Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542); and successfully asserting English authority over the Kingdom of Ireland. They also maintained the traditional (i.e. nominal) claims to the Kingdom of France, but none of them tried to make substance of it, though Henry VIII fought wars with France to try to reclaim that title. After him, his daughter Mary I lost the claim on France forever with the Fall of Calais.


In total, five Tudor monarchs ruled their domains for just over a century. Henry VIII of England was the only male-line male heir of Henry VII to live to the age of maturity. Issues around the Royal succession (including marriage and the succession rights of women) became major political themes during the Tudor era. The House of Stuart came to power in 1603 when the Tudor line failed, as Elizabeth I died without issue. The Tudor rulers disliked the term "Tudor" (because the first Tudor was low-born), and it was not much used before the late 18th century.[2]


The Wars of the Roseswere a series of dynastic wars fought between supporters of two rival branches of the royal House of Plantagenet: the houses of Lancaster and York (whose heraldic symbols were the "red" and the "white" rose, respectively) for the throne of England. They were fought in several sporadic episodes between 1455 and 1485, although there was related fighting both before and after this period. The final victory went to a relatively remote Lancastrian claimant, Henry Tudor, who defeated the last Yorkist king Richard III and married Edward IV's daughter Elizabeth of York to unite the two houses. The House of Tudor subsequently ruled England and Wales for 117 years.


Henry of Bolingbroke had established the House of Lancaster on the throne in 1399 when he deposed his cousin Richard II and was crowned as Henry IV. Bolingbroke's son Henry V maintained the family's hold on the crown, but when Henry V died, his heir was the infant Henry VI. The Lancastrian claim to the throne descended from John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, the fourth son of Edward III. Henry VI's right to the crown was challenged by Richard, Duke of York, who could claim descent from Edward's third and fifth sons, Lionel of Antwerp and Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York. Richard of York, who had held several important offices of state, quarrelled with prominent Lancastrians at court and with Henry VI's queen, Margaret of Anjou.


Although armed clashes had occurred previously between supporters of York and Lancaster, the first open fighting broke out in 1455 at the First Battle of St Albans. Several prominent Lancastrians died, but their heirs continued a deadly feud with Richard. Although peace was temporarily restored, the Lancastrians were inspired by Margaret of Anjou to contest York's influence. Fighting resumed more violently in 1459. York and his supporters were forced to flee the country, but one of his most prominent supporters, the Earl of Warwick, invaded England from Calais and captured Henry at the Battle of Northampton. York returned to the country and became Protector of England, but was dissuaded from claiming the throne. Margaret and the irreconcilable Lancastrian nobles gathered their forces in the north of England, and when York moved north to suppress them, he and his second son Edmund were killed at the Battle of Wakefield in December 1460. The Lancastrian army advanced south and recaptured Henry at the Second Battle of St Albans, but failed to occupy London, and subsequently retreated to the north. York's eldest son, Edward, Earl of March, was proclaimed King Edward IV. He gathered the Yorkist armies and won a crushing victory at the Battle of Towton in March 1461.


After Lancastrian revolts in the north were suppressed in 1464 and Henry was captured once again, Edward fell out with his chief supporter and advisor, the Earl of Warwick (known as the "Kingmaker"), and also alienated many friends and even family members by favouring the upstart family of his queen, Elizabeth Woodville, whom he had married in secret. Warwick tried first to supplant Edward with his younger brother George, Duke of Clarence, and then to restore Henry VI to the throne. This resulted in two years of rapid changes of fortune, before Edward IV once again won complete victories at Barnet (April 1471), where Warwick was killed, and Tewkesbury (May 1471) where the Lancastrian heir, Edward, Prince of Wales, was executed after the battle. Henry was murdered in the Tower of London several days later, ending the direct Lancastrian line of succession.


A period of comparative peace followed, but King Edward died unexpectedly in 1483. His surviving brother, Richard of Gloucester, first moved to prevent the unpopular Woodville family of Edward's widow from participating in the government during the minority of Edward's son, Edward V, and then seized the throne for himself, using the suspect legitimacy of Edward IV's marriage as pretext. Henry Tudor, a distant relative of the Lancastrian kings who had inherited their claim, defeated Richard at Bosworth in 1485. He was crowned Henry VII, and married Elizabeth of York, daughter of Edward IV, to unite and reconcile the two houses.


Yorkist revolts, directed by John de la Pole, 1st Earl of Lincoln and others, flared up in 1487 under the banner of the pretender Lambert Simnel, who claimed to be Edward, Earl of Warwick (son of George of Clarence), resulting in the last pitched battles. Although most of the surviving descendants of Richard of York were imprisoned, sporadic rebellions continued until 1497 when Perkin Warbeck, who claimed to be the younger brother of Edward V, one of the two disappeared Princes in the Tower, was imprisoned and later executed.


The English Reformation[1] was a series of events in 16th century England by which the Church of England broke away from the authority of the Pope and the Roman Catholic Church.


These events were, in part, associated with the wider process of the European Protestant Reformation, a religious and political movement which affected the practice of Christianity across most of Europe during this period. Many factors contributed to the process: the decline of feudalism and the rise of nationalism, the rise of the common law, the invention of the printing press and increased circulation of the Bible, the transmission of new knowledge and ideas among scholars and the upper and middle classes. However, the various phases of the English Reformation, which also covered Wales and Ireland, were largely driven by changes in government policy, to which public opinion gradually accommodated itself.


Based on Henry VIII's desire for an annulment of his marriage, the English Reformation was at the outset more of a political affair than a theological dispute. The reality of political differences between Rome and England allowed growing theological disputes to come to the fore.[2] Immediately before the break with Rome, it was the Pope and general councils of the church that decided doctrine. Church law was governed by the code of canon law with final jurisdiction in Rome. Church taxes were paid straight to Rome and it was the Pope who had the final say over the appointment of bishops. The split from Rome made the English monarch the Supreme Governor of the English church by "Royal Supremacy", thereby making the Church of England the established church of the nation. Doctrinal and legal disputes now rested with the monarch, and the papacy was deprived of revenue and the final say on the appointment of bishops.


The structure and theology of the church was a matter of fierce dispute for generations. These disputes were finally ended by a coup d'état (the "Glorious Revolution") in 1688, from which emerged a church polity with an established church and a number of non-conformist churches whose members at first suffered various civil disabilities which were only removed over time, as did the substantial minority who remained Roman Catholic in England, whose church organisation remained illegal until the 19th century.


A maypoleis a tall wooden pole erected as a part of various European folk festivals, particularly on May Day, or Pentecost (Whitsun) although in some countries it is instead erected at Midsummer. In some cases the maypole is a permanent feature that is only utilised during the festival, although in other cases it is erected specifically for the purpose before being taken down again.


Primarily found within the nations of Germanic Europe and the neighbouring areas which they have influenced, its origins remain unknown, although it has been speculated that it originally had some importance in the Germanic paganism of Iron Age and early Medieval cultures, and that the tradition survived Christianisation, albeit losing any original meaning that it had. It has been a recorded practice in many parts of Europe throughout the Medieval and Early Modern periods, although became less popular in the 18th and 19th centuries. Today, the tradition is still observed in some parts of Europe and among European communities in North America.


Ма́йское де́рево (лат. Arbor majalis, нем. Maibaum, чеш. Máje, белор. Май[1], рус. Троицкая берёза) — украшенное дерево или высокий столб, который по традиции устанавливается ежегодно в начале мая, на Троицу (чаще всего) или Иванов день на площадях в деревнях и городах Германии, Австрии, Чехии, Словакии, России, Скандинавии и других европейских стран.


Светлому празднику «доброй богини» (Bona Dea) предшествовала ночь разгула колдовских сил, знаменитая Вальпургиева ночь. Древо Жизни (берёзка, ель), утверждаемое наутро при пышных обрядах, должно было показать торжество доброго начала.


Форма украшений для майского дерева сильно различается в зависимости от региона. В некоторых местах каждый год ставят новое дерево, в других ствол используется много лет, но каждый год меняет свою «крону». В Восточной Фризии ствол хранится под водой и устанавливается каждый год к первому мая. В Германии и Скандинавии стволы часто очищают от коры и украшают цветными гирляндами, еловыми ветками или бумагой. В других местах кора не снимается, и ствол сохраняет естественный вид. На верхушке дерева часто прикрепляется венок (так называемая «корона») или разноцветные ленты.


В Баварии ствол майского дерева обвивают лентой из ткани или бумаги или красят спиральной полосой. При этом направление спирали установлено чётко: снизу вверх слева направо. По бокам майского дерева прикрепляют изображения бытовых сценок, рассказывающих о занятиях жителей этой деревни (рыболовство, земледелие, танцы, ремёсла и т. д.).


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