Палата общин Великобритании House of Commons of the United Kingdom



The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom which, like the House of Lords (the upper house), meets in the Palace of Westminster. The Commons is a democratically elected body consisting of 650 members known as Members of Parliament (MPs). Members are elected to represent constituencies by first-past-the-post and hold their seats until Parliament is dissolved.

 

A House of Commons of England evolved at some point in England during the 14th century, becoming the House of Commons of Great Britain after the political union with Scotland in 1707 and in the nineteenth century the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland after the political union with Ireland before assuming its current title after independence was given to the Irish Free State in 1922.

 

Under the Parliament Act 1911, the Lords' power to reject legislation was reduced to a delaying power. The Government is primarily responsible to the House of Commons and the prime minister stays in office only as long as he or she retains its support.

Describe the Danish raids of England. The struggle of Alfred the Great and its results.

Anglo-Saxon Britain was not a united country. There were a lot of small kingdoms which constantly waged wars against one another for supreme power. These little king­doms were weak and could not hold out against at­tacks from abroad.

Beginning with the 8th century, pirates from Scandinavia and Denmark began raiding the eastern shores of Britain. In the 19th century the country had to struggle with the Danes. At first they acted as pirates attacking the country & robbing it, but later they came in larger numbers conquering one territory after another. They landed their longboats, killed & robbed the population of the towns and villages and sailed away. Gradually they began settling in Britain and seized more and more land. The Anglo-Saxons understood that their small kingdoms must unite in order to struggle against the Danes. In the 9th century Egbert, the king of Wessex, one of the stronger Anglo-Saxon kingdoms, unit­ed several neighbour­ing kingdoms. The united kingdom got the name of England, and Egbert became the first king of the united country. The kingdom of Wessex alone was left to resist the Danes.

Alfred, the grandson of Egbert, became king in the year 871, when England's danger was greatest. The Danes, who had settled on the eastern shores of Britain, continued robbing and killing the people of England and occupying more and more land. Alfred gathered a big army and gave the Danes a great bat­tle at Maldon in 891. The Danes were defeated in this battle, but still they remained very strong and dangerous, and Alfred hurried to make peace with them.He had to give the Danes the greater portion of England. The kingdom that was left in Alfred's pocession was Wessex. There were some years of piece, and during this time Alfred built the first English navy. He worked out a code of laws. He translated the Church history and parts of the Bible from Latin into Anglo-Saxon. He started the famous Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, the first history of England. It was lucky for Wessex to have a very talented king who organized the struggle against the Danes. This was Alfred who ruled from 871 to 901, and who eventually defeated the Danes making them sign a peace agreement. Though the country was divided into two parts - one under the Saxons, and the other under the Danes, peace was won and later the English took over the land occupied by the Danes. Danish influence is still felt in some place-names ending in -by, -toft, such as Appleby or Lowestoft, as well as in the presence of some words in the English language. Alfred was also a great lawgiver and a patron of learning. He is considered to be the founder of the English fleet.

The Anglo-Saxon kings that ruled after Alfred, continued fighting the Danes, until all England was once more ruled by English kings. But 80years after Alfred's death the Danes came again with great armies and occupied much of the territory. Again Britain was divided into two parts: the northern part ruled by the Danes, and Wessex in the south ruled by English kings. The Danes continued their attacks on Wessex and finally occupied the whole the territory. In 1016, the king of Denmark Canute became also, the king of England. Canute was a strong monarch and gave England peace for nearly 20 years. When he died in 103B his two sons ruled England for a short time one after the other. With the death of Canute's second son in 1042, the Danish rule was over. An English king came to the throne.

The results:

Danish way of making a name in English: placenames ending in – by: Derbly, naseby, rugby.

By meaning a farmstead:

-thorpe- denoting a village (Sunthorpe)

-toft (Lavstoft)

-son (Jonson, Wikinson – to the name of the father)

Роза Тюдоров The Tudor rose(sometimes called the Union rose) is the traditional floral heraldic emblem of England and takes its name and origins from the Tudor dynasty.

When Henry VII of England took the crown of England from Richard III in battle, he brought about the end of the Wars of the Roses between the House of Lancaster (whose badge was a red rose) and the House of York (whose badge was a white rose). His father was Edmund Tudor from the House of Richmond, and his mother was Margaret Beaufort from the House of Lancaster; he married Elizabeth of York to bring all factions together. In fact, Richard III fought under the banner of the boar, and Henry under the banner of the dragon of his native Wales. The white rose/red rose idea was a Tudor invention.[1] The historian Thomas Penn writes:

The "Lancastrian" red rose was an emblem that barely existed before Henry VII. Lancastrian kings used the rose sporadically, but when they did it was often gold rather than red; Henry VI, the king who presided over the country's descent into civil war, preferred his badge of the antelope. Contemporaries certainly did not refer to the traumatic civil conflict of the 15th century as the "wars of the roses". For the best part of a quarter-century, from 1461 to 1485, there was only one royal rose, and it was white: the badge of Edward IV.[1]

 

On his marriage, Henry VII adopted the Tudor rose badge conjoining the white rose of York and the red rose of Lancaster. The Tudor rose is occasionally seen divided in quarters (heraldically as "quartered") and vertically (in heraldic terms per pale) red and white.[2] More often, the Tudor rose is depicted as a double rose,[3] white over red and is always described, heraldically, as "proper".


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