HISTORY OF BRITISH COLONIAL RULE IN AFRICA



 

It is important to note that the advent of British colonization of Africa coincided with the era of scientific racism as represented by social Darwinism (survival of the fittest). The British believed that because they had superior weaponry and were therefore more technologically advanced than the Africans, that they had a right to colonize and exploit the resources of the Africans in the name of promoting civilization. But it is inherently contradictory for an invading force to usher in “civilization.”

 

Britain had many colonies in Africa: in British West Africa there was Gambia, Ghana, Nigeria, Southern Cameroon, and Sierra Leone; in British East Africa there was Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania (formerly Tanganyika and Zanzibar); and in British South Africa there was South Africa, Northern Rhodesia (Zambia), Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe), Nyasaland (Malawi), Lesotho, Botswana, and Swaziland. Britain had a strange and unique colonial history with Egypt. The Sudan, formerly known as the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, was jointly ruled by Egypt and Britain, because they had jointly colonized the area. The joint colonial administration of the Sudan by Egypt and Britain was known as the condominium government. The British system of government affected the type of racial or ethnic problems that all of Britain’s African colonies had during the colonial period, the immediate postcolonial period, and from the 1980s into the twenty-first century.

 

 

Trooping the Colour Вынос цвета is a ceremony performed by regiments of the British and Commonwealth armies. It has been a tradition of British infantry regiments since the 17th century, although the roots go back much earlier. On battlefields, a regiment's colours, or flags, were used as rallying points. Consequently, regiments would have their ensigns slowly march with their colours between the soldiers' ranks to enable soldiers to recognise their regiments' colours.

 

Since 1748 Trooping the Colour has also marked the official birthday of the British sovereign.[1] It is held in London annually on a Saturday in June[2] on Horse Guards Parade by St. James's Park, and coincides with the publication of the Birthday Honours List. Among the audience are the Royal Family, invited guests, ticketholders and the general public. The colourful ceremony, also known as "The Queen's Birthday Parade", is broadcast live by the BBC.

 

The Queen travels down The Mall from Buckingham Palace in a royal procession with a sovereign's escort of Household Cavalry (mounted troops or horse guards). After receiving a royal salute, she inspects her troops of the Household Division, both foot guards and horse guards, and the King's Troop, Royal Horse Artillery. Each year, one of the foot-guards regiments is selected to troop its colour through the ranks of guards. Then the entire Household Division assembly conducts a march past the Queen, who receives a salute from the saluting base. Parading with its guns, the King's Troop takes precedence as the mounted troops perform a walk-march and trot-past.

Multiculturalism in America

Multiculturalism in America has promoted the socio-economic life of American society. Read ahead to know its effects on America. Multiculturalism is the acceptance of multiple ethnic cultures at the organizational level. This is applied to the demographic make-up of a country, where people from different religious backgrounds, countries and tradition are given equitable status in schools, neighborhood, cities and nations. In the 19th century, America experienced massive immigration, one of the most important features of American society. This has given rise to multiculturalism in America.

 

Origin of Multiculturalism in America

 

This originated in 1950s, during the civil rights movement. The movement brought on surface, the issues regarding discrimination, inequality and oppression. People placed their demands on political and social institutions for their social recognition. In the late 19th century and early 20th century, George Washington Carver, Charles H. Wesley, W.E.B. DuBoi, William James played an instrumental role in promoting multiculturalism in America and espoused the idea of a "plural society".

 

Its Effects

 

In America, multiculturalism, is still not a prominent policy, established at the federal level. The efforts of these prominent figures in promoting an egalitarian society in America, gave rise to a new wave towards a sustained change in socio-economic development.

 

America has always been proud to practice freedom of thought and religion. It gave equal opportunity to every one, irrespective of culture and place. In the last few years, influx of Latinos and Asians have rapidly increased. To deal with this, people must create a multicultural society based on equality and should accept American history on racism.

 

Census showed that Asian Americans are the fastest growing groups in America and 13% of the total population is Hispanic. Today, America has become amalgamated with mixed culture, comprising immigrants, natives and minorities, metaphorically representing the melting pot. Some of the distinctive characteristics of American society are: multiculturalism being accepted as fair system by law and tolerance towards people accepted as means for better adaptability.

 

This ideology had far flung effects. It not only brought about a change of social layers, but also made the citizen enjoy equal rights and liberty. It had a dominant theme in educational and intellectual sector. This led to the demand for rights from people of various communities and background. Oppressed classes like, gays, lesbians, elderly people and downtrodden classes also put forth their rights.

 

The most prominent effect was felt in reformation of the educational system. Oppressed classes, like the African-Americans were given equal recognition in educational institutions. In business, trade and corporate sectors, equal participation right was given to people from different backgrounds.

 

Its Benefits

 

Multiculturalism was accepted as an official policy, that gave recognition to multiple citizenship within the country. The government supported television shows, radio programs and newspapers in minority languages. It also rendered support to minority celebrations, holidays, music, art and festivals. Liberty in marriage and judiciary laws were also enforced by the US constitution, depending upon ethnicity. Overseas trade was encouraged.

 

Wearing traditional dresses in educational institutions was accepted. In the hiring process, much fairer policy was accepted. Racism or discrimination in schools and colleges was a punishable offense. Introduction of new textbooks with multicultural perspective was one of positive aspects of multiculturalism. Emphasis was laid on subjects, such as history, sociology, philosophy, art and literature of different cultures. Scholarships were funded by the Government for higher studies. Representation of multicultural nationals in politics, engineering, science and technology, was a significant improvement in general.

 

Multiculturalism in the US has definitely shown positive aspects and is still supporting a large number of immigrants, who are engaged actively in education and business. Although, weightage is much more on the positive side, there's some amount of corruption prevailing in America due to multiculturalism.

 

Some evidence suggests that religious reasons are most important for causing the war like the Scottish rebellion and growing gap between Puritans and standard Protestants. However, some evidence suggests Charles style of reign was most important. Like his very strong belief on divine right of kings. There is also evidence for financial problems being an issue, social, constitutional and national conflict. There is no clear answer really.

 

 There are a number of religious reasons as to why the civil war broke out. One of the reasons not necessarily the most crucial was that Charles married a Catholic woman; this caused a number of fears that she would convert him. Although a protestant he was a cultured man and enjoyed decorated churches, this however was seen as Catholic and angered many Protestants especially Puritans. However, what angered most Protestants out of all the religious squabbles was Archbishop William Laud. He was a huge opposition of Puritans a sect of Protestantism. He was afraid of the local bishops running there own church and the system of hierarchy that he was head of being overrun. However, the Protestants thought the Counter Reformation which at the time was spreading all through Europe would come to England. Also the fact the Protestants were losing the 30 years war.

 

 Other reasons for the civil war was financial problems this was mainly based around the fact Parliament had to give him permission to collect taxes which meant as the parliament didn't like his view on the divine right of kings they suppressed money from him. To get money from the people Ship Tax was introduced another tax first introduced in just coastal counties

 

 In the 1970s, a Marxist approach to the reasoning behind the civil war was favoured as after all Parliament is commoners and the crown is aristocracy. However, in the end it was discovered, after doing a survey, that the two sides were split evenly so technically the whole Marxist approach is not valid. Therefore a lot of time was wasted in Cambridge and other universities in the 1970s trying to prove the Marxist approach was incorrect.

 

The Gunpowder Plot пороховой заговор was an attempt by a group of Catholics to murder King James I and the members of parliament. It is celebrated every year in England on 5 November when bonfires and fireworks are lit.

 

In the late 16th century most people in England were Protestants but there was a significant minority of Catholics. The Catholics faced persecution although it was mainly priests who were executed as they were regarded as foreign agents. However ordinary Catholics faced severe fines for not attending Church of England services.

 

In 1570 the Pope excommunicated Elizabeth I and declared that her people no longer had a duty to obey her. However most Catholics remained loyal to Elizabeth but the Pope's actions made Protestants more suspicious of them.

 

Queen Elizabeth died in March 1603 and she was succeeded by James VI of Scotland, who now became King James I of England as well. Catholics hoped that James treat them after all his wife, a Danish woman was a Catholic. They were soon to be disappointed. At first James stopped the fines for non-attendance at Church of England services. However 2 failed Catholic plots in 1603 alienated the king and he reinstated the fines in 1604. Nevertheless most Catholics remained loyal to James and would not take part in any violence.

 

There were however a small number who would. Among them were Robert Catesby (born 1573) and his friend Thomas Percy. Also Thomas Winter and John Wright. The most notorious of the plotters was a soldier named Guy Fawkes (born in Yorkshire in 1570). The five men met in May 1604. They discussed a plan to blow up parliament using gunpowder.

 

 

Cromwellian republic

 

The countries that now make up the United Kingdom, together with the present Republic of Ireland, were briefly ruled as a republic in the 17th century, first under the Commonwealth consisting of the Rump Parliament and the Council of State, (1649–53) and then under the Protectorate of Oliver Cromwell (1653–58). The Commonwealth Parliament represented itself as a Republic on the classical model, with John Milton writing Latin justifications for use as propaganda on Continental Europe. Cromwell's Protectorate was less ideologically republican and was seen by Cromwell as restoring the mixed constitution of monarchy, aristocracy and democracy found in classical literature and English common law discourse.

 

First the Kingdom of England was declared to be the Commonwealth of England and then Scotland and Ireland were briefly forced into union with England by the army. This decision was later reversed when the monarchy was restored in 1660. In 1707 the Act of Union between England and Scotland was signed; the two countries' parliaments became one, and in return Scotland was granted access to the English colonies.

Many of Cromwell's actions upon gaining power were decried as "harsh, unwise, and tyrannical".[citation needed] He and General Thomas Fairfax were often ruthless in putting down the mutinies which occurred within their own army towards the end of the civil wars (prompted by Parliament's failure to pay the troops). They showed little sympathy for the Levellers, an egalitarian movement which had contributed greatly to Parliament's cause but sought representation for ordinary citizens. The Leveller point of view had been strongly represented in the Putney Debates, held between the various factions of the Army in 1647, just prior to the King's temporary escape from army custody. Cromwell and the Grandees were not prepared to permit such a radical democracy and used the debates to play for time while the future of the King was being determined. Catholics were persecuted zealously under Cromwell. Although he personally was in favour of religious toleration - "liberty for tender consciences" - not all his compatriots agreed. The war led to much death and chaos in Ireland where Irish Catholics and Protestants who fought for the Royalists were persecuted. There was a ban on many forms of entertainment, as public meetings could be used as a cover for conspirators; horse racing was banned, the maypoles were famously cut down, the theatres were closed, and Christmas celebrations were outlawed for being too ceremonial, Catholic, and "popish". When Charles II eventually regained the throne, in 1660, he was widely celebrated for allowing his subjects to have "fun" again[citation needed].

 

Much of Cromwell's power was due to the Rump Parliament, a Parliament purged of opposition to grandees in the New Model Army. Whereas Charles I had been in part restrained by a Parliament that would not always do as he wished (the cause of the Civil War), Cromwell was able to wield much more power as only loyalists were allowed to become MPs, turning the chamber into a rubber-stamping organisation. This was ironic given his complaints about Charles I acting without heeding the "wishes" of the people. But even so he found it almost impossible to get his Parliaments to follow all his wishes. His executive decisions were often thwarted - most famously in the ending of the rule of the regional major generals appointed by himself.

 

In 1657 Cromwell was offered the crown by Parliament, presenting him with a dilemma since he had played a great role in abolishing the monarchy. After two months of deliberation, he rejected the offer. Instead, he was ceremonially re-installed as "Lord Protector", with greater powers than he had previously held. It is often suggested that offering Cromwell the Crown was an effort to curb his power: as a King he would be obliged to honour agreements such as Magna Carta, but under the arrangement he had designed he had no such restraints. This allowed him to preserve and enhance his power and the army's while decreasing Parliament's control over him, probably to enable him to maintain a well-funded army which Parliament could not be depended upon to provide.

 

The office of Lord Protector was not formally hereditary, though Cromwell was able to nominate his own successor in his son, Richard

 

The Restoration. In 1660 Parliament offered to restore the monarchy if Charles would agree to concessions for religious toleration and a general amnesty. Charles was not as hard-headed as his father, and he agreed to the proposals. He returned to London on a wave of popular support to be crowned Charles II (1660-85).

 

 Charles' closest five advisors had initials which formed the word "Cabal", which came to mean a secret association because they were suspected to be the real power behind the throne.

 

 The Restoration was notable for a relaxation of the strict Puritan morality of the previous decades. Theatre, sports, and dancing were revived. Charles' court was notable for its revelry and licentiousness.

 

 While Charles was enjoying his new court, he was less than successful internationally.

 The English fought a losing naval war with the Dutch, and England's presence on the high seas had never been so low.

Restoration of the monarchy

 

Although England, Ireland and Scotland became constitutional monarchies, after the reigns of Charles II and his brother James II & VII, and with the ascension of William and Mary to the English, Irish and Scottish thrones as a result of the Glorious Revolution of 1688, there have been movements throughout the last few centuries whose aims were to remove the monarchy and establish a republican system. A notable period was the time in the late 18th century and early 19th century when many Radicals such as the minister Joseph Fawcett were openly republican.[2]

 

During the later years of Queen Victoria's reign, there was considerable criticism of her decision to withdraw from public life following the death of her husband, Prince Albert. However this did not translate into clear support for republicanism. Most of the criticism was dismissed when she came out of mourning and returned to public life.

 

Some members of the Labour Party, such as Keir Hardie, also held republican views.[3]

 

A community college is a type of educational institution. The term can have different meanings in different countries.

Australia

 

Community colleges carry on the tradition of adult education, which was established in Australia around mid 19th century when evening classes were held to help adults enhance their numeracy and literacy skills.[1] Today, courses are designed for personal development of an individual and/or for employment outcomes. The educational program covers a variety of topics such as arts, languages, business and lifestyle; and are usually timetabled to be conducted in the evenings or weekends to accommodate people working full-time. Funding for community colleges may come from government grants and course fees; and most community colleges are not-for-profit organisations. There are community colleges located in metropolitan, regional and rural locations of Australia.

 

Learning offered by community colleges has changed over the years. By the 1980s many colleges had recognised a community need for computer training and since then thousands of people have been up-skilled through IT courses. The majority of colleges by the late 20th century had also become Registered Training Organisations; recognising the need to offer individuals a nurturing, non-traditional education venue to gain skills that would better prepare them for the workplace and potential job openings.[2] Qualifications such as undergraduate degrees and higher are not offered at community colleges, though some community colleges do offer certificate courses I to IV.

[edit]

Canada

Main article: College (Canada)

 

In Canada, the term community college is not widely used. There are 150 institutions that could be roughly equivalent of the US community college in certain contexts. They are usually referred to simply as "colleges" since in common usage a degree granting institution is, almost, exclusively a university. In the province of Quebec, even when speaking in English, colleges are called Cégeps for Collège d'enseignement général et professionnel, meaning "College of General and Vocational Education". (The word College can also refer to a private High School in Quebec).

 

Colleges are educational institutions providing higher education and tertiary education, granting certificates, and diplomas. Associate's degrees and bachelor's degrees are granted by universities, but, in some courses of study, there may be an agreement between colleges and universities to collaborate on the education requirements toward a degree. Only in Western Canada is the term Associates degree used as in the United States. In other parts of Canada a degree is usually attained as a 4 year study program, and to a much lesser degree now (except in Quebec, where it is the norm), in 3 years.

 

Each Province has its own Educational system reflecting the decentralization of the Canadian provinces and therefore of the Education system. However most of the colleges began in the mid-1960s as a response education and training for the then emerging baby boom generation, and to provide training to the post second World War II European immigrants and newer immigrants from around the world, that were starting to enter the country.

Canadian Community College Systems

Nova Scotia Community College

New Brunswick Community College

Ontario Colleges

Quebec CEGEPs

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Malaysia

Main article: Community college (Malaysia)

 

Community colleges in Malaysia are a network of educational institutions whereby vocational and technical skills training could be provided at all levels for school leavers before they entered the workforce. The community colleges also provide an infrastructure for rural communities to gain skills training through short courses as well as providing access to a post-secondary education.

 

At the moment, most community colleges award qualifications up to Level 3 in the Malaysian Qualifications Framework (Certificate 3) in both the Skills sector (Sijil Kemahiran Malaysia or the Malaysian Skills Certificate) as well as the Vocational and Training sector but the number of community colleges that are starting to award Level 4 qualifications (Diploma) are increasing. This is two levels below a Bachelor's degree (Level 6 in the MQF) and students within the system who intend to further their studies to that level will usually seek entry into Advanced Diploma programs in public universities, polytechnics or accredited private providers.

[edit]

Philippines

 

In the Philippines, a community school functions as elementary or secondary school at daytime and towards the end of the day convert into a community college. This type of institution offers night classes under the supervision of the same principal, and the same faculty members who are given part-time college teaching load.[3]

 

The concept of community college dates back to the time of the former Minister of Education, Culture and Sports (MECS) that had under its wings the Bureaus of Elementary Education, Secondary Education, Higher Education and Vocational-Technical Education. MECS Secretary, Dr. Cecilio Putong, who in 1971 wrote that a community school is a school established in the community, by the community, and for the community itself. Dr. Pedro T. Orata of Pangasinan shared the same idea, hence the establishment of a Community College, now called the City College of Urdaneta.[3]

 

A community college like the one in Abuyog, Leyte can operate with only PHP 124,000 annual budget in a 2-storey structure housing more than 700 students.[3]

[edit]

United Kingdom

 

In England, a community college is a school which not only provides education for the school age population (11-18) of the locality, but also additional services and education to adults and other members of the community.[4] This education includes but is not limited to sports, adult literacy and lifestyle education. Usually at the age of 16 when students finish their secondary school studies, they move on to a sixth form college where they study for their A-levels (although some secondary schools have integrated sixth forms). After the 2 year A-level period, they may then proceed to a college of further education or a university.

[edit]

United States

Main article: Community colleges in the United States

 

Joliet Junior College Main Campus, in Joliet, Illinois the first Community College in the U.S.

 

Fullerton College the oldest community college (originally "Junior College") in continuous operation in California, having been established in 1913

 

Monroe Community College main campus, in Rochester, NY

 

In the United States, community colleges, sometimes called junior colleges, technical colleges, or city colleges, are primarily two-year public institutions providing higher education and lower-level tertiary education, granting certificates, diplomas, and associate's degrees. Many also offer continuing and adult education.

 

After graduating from a community college, some students transfer to a four-year liberal arts college or university for two to three years to complete a bachelor's degree.

 

Before the 1970s, community colleges in the United States were more commonly referred to as junior colleges, and that term is still used at some institutions. However, the term "junior college" has evolved to describe private two-year institutions, whereas the term "community college" has evolved to describe publicly funded two-year institutions. The name derives from the fact that community colleges primarily attract and accept students from the local community, and are often supported by local tax revenue.

 

Historic sites and museums

See also: List of National Historic Landmarks in Washington, D.C., National Register of Historic Places listings in Washington, D.C., and List of museums in Washington, D.C.

 

 The Lincoln Memorial had over six million visitors in 2010.[117]

 

The National Mall is a large, open park in downtown Washington between the Lincoln Memorial and the United States Capitol. Given its prominence, the mall is often the location of political protests, concerts, festivals, and presidential inaugurations. The Washington Monument and the Jefferson Pier are near the center of the mall, south of the White House. Also on the mall are the National World War II Memorial at the east end of the Lincoln Memorial Reflecting Pool, the Korean War Veterans Memorial, and the Vietnam Veterans Memorial.[118]

 

Directly south of the mall, the Tidal Basin features rows of Japanese cherry blossom trees that originated as gifts from the nation of Japan.[119] The Franklin Delano Roosevelt Memorial, George Mason Memorial, Jefferson Memorial, Martin Luther King, Jr. Memorial, and the District of Columbia War Memorial are around the Tidal Basin.[118]

 

The National Archives houses thousands of documents important to American history including the Declaration of Independence, the United States Constitution, and the Bill of Rights.[120] Located in three buildings on Capitol Hill, the Library of Congress is the largest library complex in the world with a collection of over 147 million books, manuscripts, and other materials.[121] The United States Supreme Court Building was completed in 1935; before then, the court held sessions in the Old Senate Chamber of the Capitol.[122]

 

 The Smithsonian Institution operates 19 museums and the National Zoo, all free to the public.

 

The Smithsonian Institution is an educational foundation chartered by Congress in 1846 that maintains most of the nation's official museums and galleries in Washington, D.C. The U.S. government partially funds the Smithsonian, thus making its collections open to the public free of charge.[123] The most visited of the Smithsonian museums in 2010 was the National Air and Space Museum on the National Mall.[124] Other Smithsonian Institution museums and galleries on the mall are: the National Museum of Natural History; the National Museum of African Art; the National Museum of American History; the National Museum of the American Indian; the Sackler and Freer galleries, which both focus on Asian art and culture; the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden; the Arts and Industries Building; the S. Dillon Ripley Center; and the Smithsonian Institution Building (also known as "The Castle"), which serves as the institution's headquarters.[125]

 

The Smithsonian American Art Museum and the National Portrait Gallery are housed in the Old Patent Office Building, near Washington's Chinatown.[126] The Renwick Gallery is officially part of the Smithsonian American Art Museum but is in a separate building near the White House. Other Smithsonian museums and galleries include: the Anacostia Community Museum in Southeast Washington; the National Postal Museum near Union Station; and the National Zoo in Woodley Park.[125]

 

The National Gallery of Art is on the National Mall near the Capitol and features works of American and European art. The gallery and its collections are owned by the U.S. government but are not a part of the Smithsonian Institution.[127] The National Building Museum, which occupies the former Pension Building near Judiciary Square, was chartered by Congress and hosts exhibits on architecture, urban planning, and design.[128]

 

There are many private art museums in the District of Columbia, which house major collections and exhibits open to the public such as the National Museum of Women in the Arts; the Corcoran Gallery of Art, the largest private museum in Washington;[129] and The Phillips Collection in Dupont Circle, the first museum of modern art in the United States.[130] Other private museums in Washington include the Newseum, the O Street Museum Foundation, the International Spy Museum, the National Geographic Society Museum, and the Marian Koshland Science Museum. The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum near the National Mall maintains exhibits, documentation, and artifacts related to the Holocaust.[131]

Arts

Main articles: Theater in Washington, D.C. and Music of Washington, D.C.

 

 The John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts on the Potomac River

 

 Mural of Duke Ellington on U Street

 

Washington, D.C., is a national center for the arts. The John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts is home to the National Symphony Orchestra, the Washington National Opera, and the Washington Ballet. The Kennedy Center Honors are awarded each year to those in the performing arts who have contributed greatly to the cultural life of the United States.[132] The historic Ford's Theatre, site of the assassination of President Abraham Lincoln, continues to operate as a functioning performance space as well as museum.[133]

 

The Marine Barracks near Capitol Hill houses the United States Marine Band; founded in 1798, it is the country's oldest professional musical organization.[134] American march composer and Washington-native John Philip Sousa led the Marine Band from 1880 until 1892.[135] Founded in 1925, the United States Navy Band has its headquarters at the Washington Navy Yard and performs at official events and public concerts around the city.[136]

 

Washington has a strong local theater tradition. Founded in 1950, Arena Stage achieved national attention and spurred growth in the city's independent theater movement that now includes organizations such as the Shakespeare Theatre Company, Woolly Mammoth Theatre Company, and the Studio Theatre.[137] Arena Stage opened its newly renovated home in the city's emerging Southwest waterfront area in 2010.[138] The GALA Hispanic Theatre, now housed in the historic Tivoli Theatre in Columbia Heights, was founded in 1976 and is a National Center for the Latino Performing Arts.[139]

 

The U Street Corridor in Northwest D.C., known as "Washington's Black Broadway", is home to institutions like the Howard Theatre, Bohemian Caverns, and the Lincoln Theatre, which hosted music legends such as Washington-native Duke Ellington, John Coltrane, and Miles Davis.[140] Washington has its own native music genre called go-go; a post-funk, percussion-driven flavor of R&B that was popularized in the late 1970s by D.C. band leader Chuck Brown.[141]

 

The District is an important center for indie culture and music in the United States. The label Dischord Records, formed by Ian MacKaye, was one of the most crucial independent labels in the genesis of 1980s punk and eventually indie rock in the 1990s.[142] Modern alternative and indie music venues like The Black Cat and the 9:30 Club bring popular acts to the U Street area.[143]

Give the main characteristics of the modern population of Great Britain. What languages are spoken in the U.K. and why? Refer to the visible minority and its role.
The population of the UK now is more than 61 mln people.

Recently, there have been many waves of immigration into Britain and movement within the U.K. For example, many people from Wales, Scotland and Ireland have settled in England. Many foreigners settled in Britain since the beginning of the 20th century. Commonwealth citizens could enter Britain quite freely until 1962, while people from other countries had to receive special permits. Before the Second World Bar most of the Immigrants came from the old dominions: Canada, Australia, Mew Zealand, South Africa. In the late 1930s many Jews came from Germany because of fascist persecution, as well as Poles and people of-other nationalities from Eastern Europe. After 1952 many immigrants came to Britain from the West Indies, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Hong Kong, from some countries of Africa. At this time the British economy was developing rapidly and it needed cheap labour. The immigrants were poor and out of work and had been told there were jobs for them in Britain.

Black and Asian people can be seen in every city of Britain, but there is a greater concentration of them in larger cities, where it is easier to find work, such as London, Birmingham, Bradford, Coventry, Manchester and others. Today, more than 5 million people of non-white origin live in Britain and over 80 per cent of them were born in Britain, thus they are British, but with a different colour of their skin. The immigrants usually take the lowest paid jobs, and when there is unemployment they are the first to lose work. In spite of the laws to protect them, there was still discrimination against the non-whites. This led to serious disturbances in many cities of Britain in the early 1980s.

With the movement of people among the countries of the European Union of which Britain is a member, more and more people enter Britain from continental Europe. Today there are many Italians, Greeks, Spaniards, and Portuguese living in Britain The arrival of many foreigners has changed life in present-day Britain. British culture has been enriched through its contact with other cultures. For example, the eating and cooking habits of the British have changed. The service sector has also unproved considerably due to the arrival of immigrants. There are many shops run by South Koreans and Vietnamese which are open 24 hours, and any customer can drop in any time to buy things which he needs.

Cultural life has also become interesting due to its diversity. You can visit different exhibitions, enjoy new theatrical performances, music. Today Britain is a multiracial society which benefits from the influences of different peoples and cultures.

Languages:

Today in England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland, English is the language predominantly spoken. In Wales, however, Welsh, a form of British Celtic, is spoken by some 20 % of the population (about half a million people). The Welsh Language Council, an official body, promotes the use of the language and there is a number of bilingual schools in Wales.

Walsh is widely used for official purposes, and is treated equally with English in the work of the National Assembly. It is quite extensively used in broadcasting, and most road signs are bilingual. Welsh-medium education in schools is encouraged. Since September 2000, Welsh has been taught as a 1st or the 2nd language. The National Assembly is responsible for supporting Welsh culture and developing greater use of the Welsh language.

In Scotland over 70,000 people speak the Scottish, form of Gaelic. A few families of Northern Ireland still speak the Irish form of Gaelic. But in general the number of people speaking the above-mentioned languages other than English

Is declining. The Cornish variety of Celtic is no longer affectively a living language, although there is a revival of culture interest. For centuries the British governments promoted the spread of English at the expense of other language.


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