Субъектный инфинитивный оборот



Оборот «подлежащее + инфинитив»

 

    Формула: подлежащее + глагол-характеристика + инфинитив. Подлежащее (субъект) совершает действие, выраженное инфинитивом (отсюда субъектный инфинитивный оборот), а формальное сказуемое характеризует отношение к данному действию, отсюда «глагол-характеристика».

Iron is considered to be one of the          Считают, что железо является

most useful metals.                                  одним из самых полезных

                                                                металлов.

    Сравните: It is considered that iron is one of the most useful metals.

 

Перевод предложения начинается, как правило, с глагола-характеристики, инфинитив переводится личной формой глагола.

    Глаголы-характеристики:

1. Употребляются в предложении в страдательном залоге.

to say – говорить                               to think

to know – знать                                  to believe    полагать, считать

to consider – считать, рассматривать to find

to state – заявлять                              to suppose

to report – сообщать                          to assume     предполагать

                                                           to expect – ожидать, полагать

 

The delegation is expected to come    Ожидают, что делегация прибудет

on Monday.                                        в понедельник.

 

 

2. Употребляется в предложении в действительном залоге:

to seem                                               to prove - оказываться

to appear    казаться                      to happen – оказываться, случаться

                                                           to turn out – оказываться

 

The experiment proved to be a success. Опыт оказался удачным.

 

To appear часто переводится « по-видимому».

 

The façade was decorated by blue        Фасад был облицован голубыми

panels which appear to be of some        панелями, которые, по-видимому,

ceramic material.                                  изготовлены из какого-нибудь

                                                             керамического материала.

 

3.Глагол to be в личной форме + прилагательные:

likely – вероятный

unlikely – маловероятный

certain, sure – несомненный

 

Under these conditions the output of the При этих условиях производи-

plant is likely to increase.                      тельность завода, вероятно,

                                                              увеличится.

 

Exercises

 

1. Translate the following sentences. Pay attention to the functions of the infinitive.

    1. The first step to take is to improve the quality of building materials. 2. The Egyptians seem to be the first to apply geometry for practical purposes. 3. You may want to contact the supplier for additional information. 4.The sides of the Egyptian pyramids were to face north, south, east and west. 5. Tsiolkovsky had little money to spend on his research. 6. It is the lecture not to be missed. 7. Archimedes is said to have been killed by a Roman soldier who did not know the old man to be a scholar. 8. To obtain paper of high quality the pulp should be carefully washed. 9. After washing the pulp is spread on a wire net to be dried. 10. To be applied for paper-making the water must be specially conditioned. 11. We study the elements to be able to make use of their properties. 12. Science has shown the electron to be a peculiar combination of mass and electrical charge. 13.A planetarium is the best place to watch the sky. 14. The model to be tested was submitted to a special commission. 15. Engineers study mathematics to be able to make complicated computations and to acquire practical skill in making drafts. 16.The machine to be assembled will be more effective than that of a recent design.

 

 

2. Translate the following sentences. Pay attention to the functions of the infinitive.

        1. Prefabricated rooms and flats can be assembled into houses. 2. The programming control system is to fulfil this task. 3. It is necessary to take the following measures to solve the housing problem in Britain. 4. The chief function of the building is to provide a suitable meeting hall. 5. It is not easy in Britain to find a house. 6. To find a house becomes still more difficult. 7. The problem to be discussed is connected with the housing construction. 8. People made many efforts to find a new source of energy. 9. The operator’s place is to be as close to the job as possible. 10. They will need much concrete to be used for soil stabilization. 11. The aggregates are graded in size from fine to coarse in order to reduce the amount of voids to be filled by cement. 12. Since recent years timber beams no longer serve to carry the load of a structure. 13. EPA sets these standards to protect the health of everybody.

 

 

3. Define sentences with complex object and complex subject. Translate.

1. For a long time the atom was thought to be indivisible. 2. If considered from this point of view, the problem seems to be rather complicated. 3. Concrete is said to be the most suitable material for modern construction. 4. We expected great changes to take place. 5. This type of mixer is said to have some advantages. 6. Coal is considered to be valuable fuel. 7. We know many articles to have been written on the subject. 8. He is supposed to work at this plant. 9. Concrete is considered to expand when heated. 10. We want him to say a few words on the matter. 11. The sand was found to be too fine to make concrete. 12. This scientist seems to have been working on that problem for 2 years. 13. Copper is likely to be one of the first metals to be used by man. 14. We know computers to be widely used in everyday life and in industry.

 

 

4. Translate the following sentences with Complex Subject.

1. Until recent years reinforced concrete was considered to suit only to heavy and massive structures. 2. The beam seemed to be fixed. 3. They are sure to know how the high-rise apartment house (высотный жилой дом) has been constructed in such a short period of time. 4. Metals are known to be divided into ferrous and non-ferrous metals. 5. This method is supposed to come into wide use in construction industry. 6. Plain concrete is known to have been used from very early days. 7. All metals are known to be good conductors of electricity. 8. In rural areas, people are more likely to drink ground water. 9. The word “geometry” is known to derive from two Greek words: “geo”(earth) and “metron” (measure). 10. The Nile river was often found to overflow its banks and carry away all the landmarks. 11. The civilization of ancient Egypt is said to be more advanced than that of ancient China. 12. Astronomy, philosophy and mathematics are supposed to have been known in Egypt as early as 5000 B.C.

 

 

5. Write these sentences in another way, beginning as shown. Use the underlined word in your sentences.

1. It is expected that the strike will end soon. The strike … .

2. It is expected that the weather will be good tomorrow. The weather … .

3. It is believed that the thieves got in through the kitchen window. The thieves … 4. It is reported that many people are homeless after the floods. Many people … . 5. It is thought that the prisoner escaped by climbing over a wall. The prisoner … . 6. It is alleged that the man drove through the town at 90 miles an hour.

The man is … .

7. It is reported that the building has been badly damaged by fire. The building … . 8. It is said that the company is losing a lot of money . The company … .

9. It is believed that the company lost a lot of money last year. The company … . 10. It is expected that the company will lose money this year. The company … . 11. It is said that Cathy works 16 hours a day. Cathy … .

12. It is believed that the missing boy is wearing a white pullover and blue jeans. The missing boy … .

13. It is reported that two people were injured in the explosion. Two people … .

 

 

6. Translate the following. Pay attention to the structure for + noun/ pronoun + infinitive which expresses possibility, importance, necessity, or value of future events.

    Model: It’s impossible for the reaction to take place in the absence of air. –

    Невозможно, чтобы реакция произошла без доступа воздуха.

 

    1. It’s impossible for the job to be finished in time. 2. It’s important for the meeting to start at eight. 3. It seems unnecessary for him to start work this week. 4. I consider it essential for the school to be properly heated. 5. It’s not good for the oil tank to be so close to the house. 6. Our aim is for the students to learn English as quickly as possible. 7. It’s time for everybody to go to bed. 8. It’s interesting for me to read books on architecture. 9. It’s important for the water to be properly treated before being delivered to the community. 10. It was a big mistake for them not to filter the water before using.

 

        

 

UNIT 6

Gerund (Герундий)

(Ving)

Герундий – неличная форма глагола, которая по своим свойствам ближе к существительному, чем к глаголу. Герундий может быть в предложении подлежащим, дополнением, может иметь при себе предлог, притяжательное местоимение, или существительное в притяжательном падеже.

Формы Герундия

 

  Simple Perfect
Active building   having built
Passive being built   having been built
  выражает в предложении действие одновременное с действием, выраженным сказуемым выражает действие, которое предшествовало действию, выраженному сказуемым
Например: Building the first atomic power station required the application of new methods and materials. – Строительство первой атомной электростанции потребовало применения новых метод и материалов. I don’t remember having read it in the paper. – Я не помню, чтобы я читал это раньше в газете.

 

Герундий переводится на русский язык:

1)существительным – Reading books gives me pleasure. – Чтение книг доставляет мне удовольствие.

2)инфинитивом – I like reading books. – Я люблю читать книги.

          3)деепричастием – I can’t translate this text without using a dictionary. – Я не могу перевести этот текст, не пользуясь словарем.

          4)личной формой глагола в составе придаточного предложения. – We know of many new cities having been built in various parts of our country. – Мы знаем, что в различных регионах нашей страны было построено много новых городов.

 

Запомните следующие глаголы, за которыми следует герундий, а не инфинитив.

       stop (give up) – прекращать, отказаться, бросить (что-то делать)

       postpone (put off) – откладывать

       finish – закончить

deny – отрицать

imagine – представить себе

admit – допускать

carry on (go on) – продолжать

keep (keep on) – продолжать (делать что-то многократно, постоянно)

suggest – предлагать

consider – рассматривать, учитывать

mind – возражать

enjoy – наслаждаться, получать удовольствие

avoid – избегать

love – любить

like – нравиться, любить

 

Примечание: глаголы start, begin употребляются как с последующим герундием, так и с инфинитивом.

       It started raining.

       It started to rain.

 

Герундиальный оборот представляет собой следующие конструкции:

       1)притяжательное местоимение + герундий;

       2)существительное в притяжательном (общем) падеже + герундий.

 Герундиальный оборот переводится дополнительным придаточным предложением, которое вводится словами: о том, чтобы; на том, чтобы; то, что; тем, что; и т.п.

 

Some specialists insist on these methods Некоторые специалисты

being introduced.                                 настаивают на том, чтобы

                                                              эти методы были внедрены.

 

I didn’t know of his doing an English   Я не знал, что он занимается на

course.                                                  курсах английского языка.

 

Exercises

 

1. Translate the following sentences paying attention to the Gerund.

       1. At the end of the 60s it became evident that the problem could be solved only by purifying utilized water. 2. After primary treatment polluted water may be used for drinking. 3. Permission to start producing cardboard was received only when the state commission accepted the pollution-control system as operable. 4. Measuring air pressure is the function of the barometer. 5. We cannot determine the temperature without measuring. 6. The material was destroyed by having been exposed to atmospheric changes. 7. He was appointed head engineer of the power station for having much practical knowledge in civil engineering. 8. After heating the mixture the chemist obtained a substance with new properties. 9. An alloy is capable of being heated to a very high temperature. 10. It is impossible to put up modern structures without using concrete. 11. The basic materials for making concrete are cement, aggregate and water. 12. All types of cement shrink (давать усадку) during setting. 13. Concrete is made by mixing cement, water, sand and gravel in the right amount. 14. Cement starts hardening one hour after the water has been added and the process of hardening lasts for about twenty-eight days.

 

 

2. Translate the following paying attention to different functions of the Gerund.

       1. Smoking is not allowed here. 2. The car needs repairing. 3. After receiving good results they stopped experiments. 4. Reading English technical magazines is important for an engineer. 5. He remembers having added some water to the mixture. 6. They finished installing the apparatus only on Saturday. 7. They began making the experiment in May. 8. After failing the examination in January he had to take it again in February. 9. After graduating from the Institute he worked in the Far North. 10. At the meeting they discussed different ways of improving their work. 11. There are different ways of obtaining the substance. 12.He improved his report by changing the end. 13. Instead of restoring the old theatre they decided to build a new one in the centre of the town. 14. New possibilities for applying atomic energy open up. 15. It is possible to set up power stations based on utilizing the heat of the sun. 16.Before being sent up the balloon was filled with a special gas. 17. Speaking foreign languages is important for every educated man.

 

3. Translate the following paying attention to –ing forms.

1. What ways of learning words do you find most effective. 2. He had no chance of changing the situation. 3. There are a lot of ways of doing it. 4. She has no experience in looking after patients. 5. He made a decision after considering the problem very carefully. 6.He did a lot of good by being frank (откровенно) with me. 7. Studying abroad gives you a unique chance to learn about the culture of another country. 8.What are your reasons for taking up English? 9. Do they have much experience in dealing with languages? 10.What arrangements do you make before starting on holiday. 11. The monument needs restoring. 12.The monument of what century are you restoring? 13. The monument of what century is being restored? 14. In language learning the emphasis is on speaking but listening, reading and writing is also practised. 15.The police were informed of the criminals having appeared in the city. 16.The committee studied the problem of improving the bus service in the town without increasing the number of buses operating on the routes. 17. Heating the substance to high temperatures may change its properties.

 

 

4. Translate the following sentences paying attention to the structures with the Gerund.

       1. Primitive man had no idea of the Earth’s being round. 2. We know from astronomy of Mars’ having two moons. 3. Before the Revolution few people knew of Tsiolkovski’s working at the problem of space flights. 4. We read about many Oxford graduates remaining unemployed for months. 5. The teacher believes in my being able to improve my English. 6. Everybody was surprised at his having taken part in the competition. 7. The article informs of the new material having great advantages over the old ones. 8. The Roman writer Pliny tells us of the Syrian merchants’ having discovered the art of glass making. 9. We were informed by the radio of a new spaceship having been launched into orbit. 10. We know of many new cities’ having been built in the remotest corners of our country.       11.The organizers of the conference were informed of his refusing to take part in it. 12. I remember his having been interested in languages in his childhood. 13. I know of his having been sent to work to the Far East. 14. What is the reason for his having left our city so suddenly? 15. We heard of the experiment having been started last week. 16. They objected to his staying at home.

 

 

5. Complete the sentences so that they mean the same as the first sentences. Begin in the way shown. Use –ing.

1. I can do what I want and you can’t stop me. You can’t stop … ? 2. It’s not a good idea to travel during the rush hour. It’s better to avoid … ? 3. Shall we go away tomorrow instead of today? Shall we postpone … ? 4. The driver of the car said it was true that he didn’t have a license. The driver of the car admitted … ? 5. Could you turn the radio down, please? Would you mind … ? 6. Please don’t interrupt me all the time. Would you mind … ?

 

 

6. Translate the following, paying attention to the active and passive gerund.

       1. I like giving presents. I like being given presents. 2. I don’t like waiting. I don’t like being kept waiting. 3. I like giving parties and inviting my friends. I like being invited to parties. 4. He insisted on my inviting her to the party. He insisted on my being invited to her party. 5. He noticed our overtaking (overtake – обогнать) the front car. He noticed our being over taken by the following car. 6. I don’t like asking personal questions. I don’t like being asked personal questions. 7. I don’t like interrupting people. I don’t like being interrupted. 8. I insisted on the doctor’s examining my son. I insisted on his being examined by the doctor.

 

 

7. Put the verb into the correct form, -ing or to … .

 a. Mind the difference between try to do (пытаться, стараться, прилагая силу и усилие) and try doing  (попробовать что-то сделать в поиске способа).

1) I was very tired. I tried (keep) my eyes open but I couldn’t.

2) I rang the doorbell but there was no answer. Then I tried (knock) on the door, but there was still no answer.

3) We tried (put) the fire out but we were unsuccessful. We had to call the fire brigade.

4) Sue needed to borrow some money. She tried (ask) Gerry but he was short of money too.

5) I tried (reach) the shelf but I wasn’t tall enough.

6) Please, leave me alone. I’m trying (concentrate).

 

b. Mind the difference between need to do (нужно что-то сделать – с активным значением) and need doing (нужно сделать что-то – с пассивным значением).

 Model:

 You don’t need to clean the room. – Тебе не нужно делать уборку в комнате.

The room doesn’t need cleaning. – Комната не требует уборки.

 

      1) I need a change. I need (go) away for a while.

      2) She isn’t able to look after herself. She needs (look) after.

      3) The windows are dirty. They need (clean).

      4) Why are you leaving now. You don’t need (go) yet, do you?

      5) You don’t need (iron) that shirt. It doesn’t need (iron).

 

с. Mind the difference between help to do (help do)  and can’t / couldn’t help doing (не могу / не мог не сделать что-то; не могу/ не мог удержаться от)

      1) They were talking very loudly. I couldn’t help (overhear) them.

      2) Can you help me (get) the dinner ready?

      3) He looks so funny. Whenever I see him, I can’t help (smile).

     4) The fine weather helped (make) it a very enjoyable holiday.

5) London has some of the finest architecture in the world. I can’t help admiring those beautiful buildings.

 

CONTENTS

 

 

1. UNIT 1 Passive ……….…………………………………………………. 1

2. UNIT 2 Sequence of Tenses. Reported Speech.…………………………. 5

3. UNIT 3 Subjunctive Mood. Conditionals..………………………………. 12

4. UNIT 4 Participles. Absolute Participle Construction…...………………. 17

5. UNIT 5 Infinitive. Complex Object. Complex Subject.…………………. 23

6. UNIT 6 Gerund…..………………………………………………………. 28

 

 


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