Task 3. Make up at least five sentences using the word-combinations in task 2, and be ready to translate those prepared by your peers
Task 4. Skim the text again and find as many as possible word combinations with the words “emissions” and “commitment” (or commit)
Task 5. Match the words to make up collocations
|1. to ratchet||a) acourse|
|2. holds accountable||b) of the aggregate effort|
|3. formally enshrine||c) bindingagreement|
|4. in fits||d) emitters|
|5. mitigation||e) commitment|
|6. outline the next||f) set of commitments|
|7. to undertake||g) climatechange|
|8. applicable to||h) climate change|
|9. chart||i) down emissions|
|10. thelargest||j) and starts|
|11. report on||k) emissions and implementation efforts|
|12. legally||l) climate action plans|
|13. torevisit||m) impacts|
|14. pervasive and irreversible||n) cuts|
|15. to tackle||o) reductions|
|16. to take stock||p) to their commitments|
|17. emissionsreduction||q) currentpledges|
|18. address||r) targets|
|19. sustained||s) all parties|
Task 6. Give English equivalents from the text of the following word combinations:
применимый для всех сторон, задачи по снижению объема выбросов, юридически обязывающее соглашение, обязательство по снижению выбросов, наибольшие источники выбросов, всеобъемлющие и необратимые последствия, устойчивое снижение выбросов парниковых газов, взяться за решение проблемы изменения климата, урывками, нерегулярно, обязаться снизить выбросы, наметить курс; намечать курс, докладывать о предпринятых усилиях по снижению выбросов и выполнению обязательств, официально узаконить планы по борьбе с изменением климатом, пересмотреть существующие обязательства, наметить следующий пакет обязательств, постепенно (поэтапно) сводить к минимуму количество выбросов, критически оценивать совокупные усилия, призывать к ответственности за выполнение своих обязательств, предпринять сокращение выбросов, ограничивать выбросы
Task 7. Make up at least five sentences in Russian using the word combinations above, and be ready to translate those prepared by your peers.
Task 8. Fill in the gaps with suitable words from the box.
|limiting, interference, outcomes, legally binding, implement, anthropogenic, climate change, the largest emitters, revisit, mitigation, determined, commit, emissions, reduction targets, binding, to address, emissionsreduction, to limit|
• Since 1994, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), which has near universal membership − with 196 parties, including the EU− has focused on the challenge of preventing dangerous ______________ interference with the global climate system.
• At the Paris climate conference (COP21) in December 2015, 195 countries adopted the first-ever universal, ______________global climate agreement, which sets out a global action plan to put the world on track to avoid dangerous ______________by limiting global warming to well below 2°C.
• The Paris Agreement requires all countries—developed and developing—to make significant commitments ______________climate change. ______________have already pledged their Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) for how they will address climate change. Countries will ______________their current pledges by 2020 and, ideally, strengthen their ______________targetsfor 2030.
• The agreement and a companion decision by parties were the key ______________of the conference. Together, the Paris Agreement and the accompanying COP decision:
- Reaffirm the goal of ______________global temperature increase well below 2 degrees Celsius, while urging efforts ______________the increase to 1.5 degrees;
- Establish ______________commitments by all parties to make “nationally ______________contributions” (NDCs), and to pursue domestic measures aimed at achieving them;
- ______________all countries to report regularly on their ______________and “progress made in implementing and achieving” their NDCs, and to undergo international review;
• The core ______________commitments are common to all parties, but there is some differentiation in the expectations set: developed countries “should” undertake absolute economy-wide ______________, while developing countries “are encouraged” to move toward economy-wide targets over time. In addition, developing countries are to receive support to ______________their commitments.
Task 9. Translate the following sentences into Russian using active vocabulary.
1) The EU accounts for 9% of global emissions and this proportion is falling. In November 2014 the world's two largest emitters - China (25% of global emissions) and the US (11%) – followed the EU by announcing their indicative post 2020 targets. Combined, these targets would cover close to half of global emissions. For the Protocol to be effective, and to achieve a global level-playing field, it needs to have the following:
2) The Protocol should set out a process, applicable to all Parties, to regularly review and strengthen mitigation commitments, consistent with the Protocol's long term goal. If Parties' collective efforts fall short of what is necessary, the process should encourage Parties to raise the level of ambition of existing commitments and formulate sufficiently ambitious commitments in subsequent target periods.
3) Starting in 2020, the review should be repeated every five years and facilitate transparency, clarity and understanding of mitigation commitments in light of their contribution to the below 2°C objective. The review should invite Parties to explain progress on their mitigation commitments and why they think their actions have been fair and ambitious.
4) The Protocol must set out the key elements of a common transparency and accountability system, applicable to all Parties. This must include robust rules on monitoring, reporting, verification and accounting, and a process for holding each Party accountable for achieving its commitments. This system will be essential to provide confidence that each Party is implementing its commitments and is on track to meet its target.
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