Will these actions on climate change actually be implemented?



Countries have realized that it is in their own interest to cut their carbon pollution. They have concluded that, far from destroying the economy, domestic climate action produces real benefits for their citizens, including new jobs, reduced poverty, and lower mortality rates. And as natural disasters increase in frequency and intensity, they have seen that not addressing climate change has real and lasting consequences.

The Paris agreement won’t “solve” climate change

The Paris agreement will now allow us to start the next wave of global climate actions. This agreement ensures that the national pledges are the floor—not the ceiling—of ambition. It will have five-year reviews under a single global transparency system with flexibility for developing countries that need it. It will spur countries to undertake even deeper cuts before 2030 and mobilize resources to help countries implement even stronger domestic reforms. Aggressive climate targets are still within reach if countries enact a virtuous cycle of ever more aggressive climate action as outlined in the Paris Agreement. Now that we have the first global climate agreement with mitigation commitments from all countries, it is time to roll up our sleeves to make sure future cycles of climate commitments can become more and more ambitious over time.

(based on: Natural Resources Defense Council issue brief The Paris Agreement on Climate Change, http://www.nrdc.org/globalwarming/files/paris-climate-agreement-IB.pdf)

Notes:

GCFGreen Climate Fund –ЗеленыйклиматическийфондООН

GDP- gross domestic product

IPCC - Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change- Межправительственнаягруппаэкспертовпоизменениюклимата

UNEP - UnitedNationsEnvironmentProgramme - Программа Организации Объединенных Наций по окружающей среде (ЮНЕП)

UNFCCC - The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change - РамочнаяконвенцияООНобизмененииклимата, РКИК

COP - Conference of the Parties

COP 21 - the 21st ses­sion of the UNFCCC Conference of the Parties КонференцияпоизменениюклиматавПариже 2015 года

NDCs - Nationally Determined Contributions - климатическиеобязательствастран

the Copenhagen climate change conference The 2009 United Nations Climate Change Conference, commonly known as the Copenhagen Summit, was held at the Bella Center in Copenhagen, Denmark, between 7 and 18 December. The conference included the 15th Conference of the Parties (COP 15) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the 5th Meeting of the Parties (MOP 5) to the Kyoto Protocol.

the Copenhagen Accord The Copenhagen Agreement is a document that delegates at the 15th session of the Conference of Parties (COP 15) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change agreed to "take note of" at the final plenary on 18 December 2009. The Accord is not legally binding

the Cancun Agreements The agreements, reached on December 11 in Cancun, Mexico, at the 2010 United Nations Climate Change Conference represent key steps forward in capturing plans to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to help developing nations protect themselves from climate impacts and build their own sustainable futures.

climate negotiations in Durban - The 2011 United Nations Climate Change Conference (COP17) was held in Durban, South Africa, from 28 November to 11 December 2011 to establish a new treaty to limit carbon emissions.

The Paris Agreement is an agreement within the framework of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) governing greenhouse gases emissions measures from 2020. The agreement was negotiated during the 21st Conference of the Parties of the UNFCCC in Paris and adopted by consensus on 12 December 2015, it is the first-ever universal, legally binding global climate deal.

Glossary

anthropogenic - антропогенный; обусловленный влиянием человека

BAU - business-as-usual

cap-and-tradeprograms - программа абсолютного ограничения и торговли выбросами

carbondioxide - углекислый газ, двуокись углерода

cumulativeelectricpower - накопительные электрические мощности

emissions- выброс(газообразных отходов); выхлоп(автомобиля и т. п.)

emissionsintensity - интенсивность выбросов

emitter - эмиттер, источник загрязнения выбросами

energymix - структура энергопотребления

greenhousegas (GHG) - парниковый газ

non-hydropowerrenewables - негидроэнергетические возобновляемые ресурсы

non-fossilfuels - неископаемое топливо

renewableresources - возобновляемые ресурсы

short-lived climate pollutants - agents that have relatively short lifetime in the atmosphere - a few days to a few decades - and a warming influence on climate. The main short lived climate pollutants are black carbon, methane and tropospheric ozone, which are the most important contributors to the human enhancement of the global greenhouse effect after CO2.

Task 1. Read the text and answer the questions:

1. Unless the urgent actions are taken, what impacts will climate change make?

2. What are the pre-industrial levels of global average temperature?

3. What benefits does tackling climate change also bring?

4. What ultimate objective did UNFCCC set?

5. What agreement was reached on De­cember 12 in Paris?

6. What came instead of the differentiation between developed and develop­ing countries due to this treaty?

7. When will Paris agreement come into force?

8. What commitments did the developed counties make?

9. What concessions did the developing counties have?

10.  What is “NDCs”?

11.  What did the parties pledge to do every five years?

12.  What does a stronger transparency and accountability system imply?

13. Who is obliged to mobilize finance and why?

14. What are countries’ post 2020 climate targets?

15.  Why is it in their own interest for the Countries to cut their carbon pollution?

16.  Why is Paris Agreement said to be a landmark?

 

Task 2. Give Russian equivalents of the following word-combinations:

address climate change, emissions reduction targets, applicable to all parties, legally binding agreement, mitigation commitment, the largest emitters, pervasive and irreversible impacts, sustained reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, to tackle climate change, in fits and starts, chart a course, report on emissions and implementa­tion efforts, energy mix, formally enshrine their climate action plans, to revisit current pledges, outline their next set of commitments, ratchet down emissions, to take stock of the aggregate effort, hold accountable to their commitments, to undertake cuts, emissions intensity, renewables, black carbon, to curb emissions


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