Later that day you tell another friend what Helen said. Use reported speech

1. Helen said that she was thinking of going to live in France.

2. Helen said that………………………………………………………………… .

Put the following into direct speech.

1. He told Jane he would help her.

2. She told Mike he was very helpful.

3. Liz told mark that she had said that the previous day.

4. He said he would be glad to meet Jane.

5. She asked George if he would come the next day.

6. They asked Tim to tell them the truth.

Correct the errors.

1. He wanted to know where was the nearest bank.

2. He said he’ll come again.

3. She said she went to Dallas five years before.

4. I told Ron I would ring him up tomorrow.

5. She asked Bella what she was doing here.

6. Rod asked Jessy where would they go.


Unit 3. Buildings Design

Skim the text and try to understand what it is about and what information is known to you.

2. Read the text:

Building Design

The design of a building begins with its future user or owner, who has in mind a perceived need for the structure, as well as a specific site and a general idea of its projected cost. The user or client brings these facts to a team of design professionals composed of architects and engineers, who can develop from them a set of construction documents that define the proposed building exactly and from which it can be constructed.

Building design professionals include those licensed by the state, such as architects and structural, mechanical, and electrical engineers, who must formally certify that the building they design will conform to all governmental codes and regulations. Architects are the primary design professionals; they orchestrate and direct the work of engineers as well as many other consultants in such specialized areas as lighting, acoustics, and vertical transportation.

The design professionals draw upon a number of sources in preparing their design. The most fundamental of these is building science, which has been gradually built up over the past 300 years. This includes the parts of physical theory that relate to building, such as the elastic theory of structures and theories of light, electricity, and fluid flow. There is also a large compendium of information on the specific properties of building materials that can be applied in mathematical models to reliably project building performance. There is also a large body of data on criteria for human comfort in such matters as thermal environment, lighting levels, and sound levels that influence a building design.

In addition to general knowledge of building science, the design team collects specific data related to the proposed building site. These include topographic and boundary surveys, investigations of subsoil conditions for foundation and water – exclusion design, and climate data and other local elements.

Concurrently with the collection of the site data, the design team works with the client to better define the often vague notions of building function into more precise and concrete terms. These definitions are summarized in a building space program, which gives a detailed written description of each required space in terms of floor area, equipment, and functional performance criteria.

This document forms an agreement between the client and the design team as to expected building size and performance.

The process by which building science, site data, and the building space program are used by the design team is the art of building design. The design process involves the selection of systems for foundations, structure, atmosphere, enclosure, space division, electrical distribution, water supply and drainage, and other building functions. These systems are made from a limited range of manufactured components but permit a wide range of variation in the final product. Once the systems and components have been selected the design team prepares a set of contract documents consisting of a written text and conventionalized drawings to describe completely the desired building configuration in terms of the specified building systems and their expected performance. When the contract documents have been completed, the final costs of the building can usually be accurately estimated and the construction process can begin.

Дата добавления: 2018-02-28; просмотров: 528; Мы поможем в написании вашей работы!

Мы поможем в написании ваших работ!