Identify the topic of each paragraph of the text. И.В. Царевская, Н.Л. Кривцова



И.В. Царевская, Н.Л. Кривцова

Иностранный язык в профессиональной сфере:

Практический курс английского языка

Учебное пособие для обучающихся

По техническим направлениям

Подготовки бакалавров

 

 

Ростов-на-Дону

2018

МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ

ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОЕ БЮДЖЕТНОЕ ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНОЕ

УЧРЕЖДЕНИЕ ВЫСШЕГО ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНОГО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ

«ДОНСКОЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ»

 

И.В. Царевская, Н.Л. Кривцова

Иностранный язык в профессиональной сфере:

практический курс английского языка

Учебное пособие для обучающихся

по техническим направлениям

подготовки бакалавров

 

 

Утверждено научным редакционно-издательским советом университета в качестве учебного пособия

 

 

Ростов-на-Дону

2018

 

УДК 803.03=03(088.8)+(08)

Рецензент: кандидат педагогических наук, доцент кафедры иностранных языков НИМИ им. А.К. Кортунова ФГБОУ ВПО

«Донской государственный аграрный университет» Е.И. Шепталина

 

И.В.Царевская, Н.Л. Кривцова

Иностранный язык в профессиональной сфере: практический курс английского языка. Учебное пособие для обучающихся по техническим направлениям подготовки бакалавров. – Ростов н/Д: Дон.гос. техн. ун-т.-

 

Учебное пособие рассчитано на студентов первого курса факультетов всех специальностей и отвечает требованиям программы Министерства Высшего Образования Российской Федерации.

Пособие включает два составных элементов (модулей):

1. Строительство

2. Архитектура

 

Учебное пособие создано на кафедре иностранных языков ДГТУ.

Все модули строятся по единой схеме и состоят из разделов (Units). В начале каждого раздела даётся вводное упражнение для ознакомления с темой. Далее следует основной текст, связанный с изучаемой темой, вопросы, контролирующие понимание текста, и серия упражнений, направленных на отработку навыков говорения. В качестве завершающего коммуникативного упражнения по теме предлагается ролевая игра.

Каждый раздел включает в себя профессионально-ориентированные тексты для перевода с английского языка на русский со словарем.

Все разделы включают грамматический материал, включающий теорию по теме и ряд упражнений, направленных на отработку и закрепление материала.

 

                                                                      © Донской государственный

                                                                                     технический университет, 2017

                                                                                                   © Царевская И.В., Кривцова Н.Л.,

2018

Оглавление

MODULE 1.

Unit 1.1 

Texts: Main Notions of Civil Engineering

    History of Building Industry

Грамматика

  • Passive Voice

 

Unit 1.2

Text: Traditional and Modern Building Materials

 

Грамматика

· Passive Voice

Unit 1.3

Text: Structural System

Грамматика

  • Model Verbs

 

MODULE 2.

Unit 2.1

Text: Forms and Functions of Architecture

 

Грамматика

· Sequence of Tenses

 

Unit 2.2

Text: Eco-frienly Houses

Грамматика

  • Direct and Indirect Speech

Unit 2.3

Text: Design of Buildings

 

        Грамматика

  • Conditional Sentences

Unit I             

1.1. Read the text:

Main Notions of Civil Engineering

Civil engineering

In modern usage, civil engineering is a broad field of engineering that deals with the planning, construction, and maintenance of fixed structures, or public works, as they are related to earth, water, or civilization and their processes. Most civil engineering today deals with power plants, bridges, roads, railways, structures, water supply, irrigation, environment, sewer, flood control, transportation and traffic. In essence, civil engineering may be regarded as the profession that makes the world a more agreeable place in which to live.

Engineering has developed from observations of the ways natural and constructed systems react and from the development of empirical equations that provide bases for design. Civil engineering is the broadest of the engineering fields, partly because it is the oldest of all engineering fields. In fact, engineering was once divided into only two fields - military and civil. Civil engineering is still an umbrella term, comprised of many related specialties.

1.2. Find the following words and word combinations in the text:

гражданское строительство -

стационарные сооружения -

общественные сооружения -

инженерное искусство, (зд.) строительство -

водоснабжение -

инфраструктура -

мелиорация—

канализация -

регулирование паводкового стока -

более приятное место -

по существу-

эмпирическиесоотношения -

обобщающийтермин -

1.3. Give Russian equivalents of the following:

to deal (with) -

a broad field -

a modern usage -

a construction -

a power plant -

may be regarded - "

maintenance -

bases for design -

transportation and traffic -

observations of the ways -

many related specialties -

1.4. Translate the text and say whether these statements are true or false:

· Civil engineering deals with construction only.

· Construction of fixed structures or public works is a part of a broad field of engineering.

· Civil engineering makes the world a more attractive place to live in.

· Civil engineering is a new field of engineering.

· Civil engineering is only a small part of all engineering fields.

· Engineering was once divided into only two fields.

· Observations of the ways natural and constructed systems react gave development to the engineering.

1.5. Choose the right variant:

1. ... deals with the planning, construction and maintenance of fixed structures or public works ...

a)... связана с планированием строительства и поддержанием стационарных и общественных сооружений...

б) ... связана с планированием, строительством, техническим обслуживанием и ремонтом стационарных и общественных соору­жений...

в)... связана с планированием, строительством сооружений и техническим обслуживанием и ремонтом стационарных сооруже­ний и общественных работ...

2. ... civil engineering may be regarded as the profession that makes the world...

а) ... гражданское строительство может быть профессиональным, что делает мир ...

б) ... гражданское строительство может рассматриваться как профессия, которая заставляет мир ...

в) ... гражданское строительство может рассматриваться как профессия, которая делает окружающий нас мир ...

Read the text

HISTORY OF BUILDING INDUSTRY

In yearly times there were few special builders. People constructed their homes from whatever material was available where they lived. The only large buildings were communal ones such as granaries and places of worship for their gods. In ancient Egypt, Greece and Rome, large buildings were financed by the rulers of the country and built by slaves who had been captured in battle. Stone was used if it was available and where it was not, brick-making industry developed.

After the end of the Roman Empire in the 4th century AD there was very little large-scale building done in Europe for about six hundred years. There were two kinds of buildings other then cottages and farm buildings: castles and churches. Building a cathedral was such a vast understanding that someone was required to organize all the craftsmen needed for the work. This was usually a master stonemason.

At the time of the Renaissance in the 15th and 16th centuries a new sort of building specialist emerged. He was usually a philosopher or artist, rather than a craftsman, who would get together a team of building workers and make arrangements to pay them. This was the beginning of the profession of architecture.

The Industrial Revolution in the 19th century brought to an end the craft traditions in building. Many new functional buildings were put up in the big towns that were developing – buildings that were not planned to be beautiful but were there to house machinery and the workers who operated it. They had to be built quickly and cheaply. The building materials were brought across the country on the new canals and railways that were quickly constructed to get the raw materials for industry and the finished products to the places where they were needed.

When the railways were built, tunnels were dug, and bridges, aqueducts, and roads were built. New materials such as steel were introduced and engineers were trained to use them. Advances in science meant that building designers could calculate in advance how a building should be constructed to ensure that it would stand up, instead of relying on a system of trial and error, for it sometimes happened that a building would collapse while it was being built.

It was important to calculate accurately the cost of materials and labour, and there came to be so much competition for doing the work that a system of tendering developed. Different contractors would calculate what it would cost to complete a project and then the lowest estimate would be chosen. The quantity surveyor emerged in the 19th century as a professional specialist in building finance who could accurately predict the cost of a project.

In the late 19th century, all kinds of new technological developments affected the building industry. The emergence of the skyscraper in Chicago, United States, was made possible not only by the use of steel framing in the structure, but also by the invention of the elevator, the telephone, and air conditioning.

The present state of building construction is complex. There is a wide range of building products and systems which are aimed primarily at groups of building types or markets. The design process for buildings is highly organized and draws upon research establishments that study material properties and performance, code officials who adopt and enforce safely standards, and design professionals who determine user needs and design a building to meet those needs. The construction process is also highly organized; it includes the manufactures of building products and systems, the craftsmen who assemble them on the building site, the contractors who employ and coordinate the work of the craftsmen, and consultants who specialize in such aspects as construction management, quality control, and insurance.

 

Identify the topic of each paragraph of the text.


Дата добавления: 2018-02-28; просмотров: 895;