Reported Speech Косвеннаяречь
|Direct speech||Reported speech|
|Present simple → Brenda said: “I walk to school every day. I live near the school.”||Past simple Brenda told me she walked to school every day because she lived near the school.|
|Present continuous → “I’m going to a party tomorrow.”||Past continuous She said she was going to a party the following day.|
|Past simple/present perfect/past perfect “We went to Oxford yesterday.” → “I haven’t been to Hyde Park yet.”→ “I hadn’t been here a week when I met an old friend.” →||Past perfect She said they had been to oxford the day before. She told me she hadn’t been to Hyde Park yet. She said she hadn’t been here a week when I met an old friend.|
|Am/is/are going to “I’m going to visit the new Tate Gallery next week.” →||Was/were going She said she was going to visit the new Tate Gallery|
|Will/would “My teacher will be 30 tomorrow”. “I would attend a drama course next month if I could find the time. “ →||Would She said her teacher would be 30 the following day. She said she would a drama course the following month if she could find the time.|
В переводе из прямой речи в косвенную речь меняются следующие наречия и обстоятельства времени:
Now → then
Today → that day
Tonight → that night/that evening
Yesterday → the day before, the previous day
Tomorrow →the following day/next day, the day after
Last Sunday → the previous Sunday
Next week → the following week
Change these statements into reported speech.
1. Mike said: “I like sky diving. It isn’t dangerous.”
2. Suzie said: “I fell off my BMX bike eight times yesterday.”
3. Christine said: “I really enjoyed water skiing last summer.”
4. Dave said: “I hadn’t heard this CD before you played it.”
5. Johnny said: “I’ll go and help them.”
6. Pauline said: “I enjoyed climbing Everest.”
2. Change the following Yes/No questions into reported interrogatives.
1. “Did you enjoy the concert, John?” she asked.
2. “Do you often go skiing, Elena?” asked Julia.
3. “Have you ever been to Siena, Mick?” asked Rob.
4. “Are you enjoying yourselves, children?” asked Jo.
5. “Does Muriel eat meat?” asked Angela.
6. “Is Donald happy in his new job?” asked George.
3. Change the following Wh-questions into reported interrogatives using the verbs in brackets in the past simple.
1. Mary: “When is Jane coming tomorrow?” (ask)
2. Sammy: “How are we going to travel to Spain?” (want to know)
3. Joyce: “Why did you phone him last night?” (ask)
4. Brian: “Who has read this novel?” (wonder)
5. Alex: “Where will you go for your holidays?” (inquire)
6. Laura: “What is the time?” (want to know)
Unit 2 Green Buildings
1. Read the text:
What is Meant by “Bioclimatic Architecture”
Bioclimatic architecture is a way of designing buildings and manipulating the environment within buildings by working with natural forces around the building rather than against them. Thus it concerns itself with climate as a major contextual generator, and with benign environments using minimal energy as its target. Bioclimatic architecture aims to protect and enhance the environment and life. It is developing on many different levels from rethinking basic concepts about our need for shelter and the function of the “city” in our lives to developing recycled or sustainable building materials.
The impact of traditional building on the environment and natural resources is enormous. However, the ideal of designing and building structures that are environmentally friendly has become fairly widespread throughout the community of architects and builders in developed nations. In many areas there is the necessity of complying with new regulations and standards aimed at protecting the environment. In addition, there are an increasing number of incentives for putting up buildings with more efficient energy consumption and that reduces the negative impacts on natural resources by using recycled or sustainable materials. While these vary around the world, there is awareness that our need for shelter must not jeopardize the environment.
There is growing interest in “green” building practice, which offer an opportunity to create environmentally sound and resource-efficient buildings by using an integrated approach to design. “Green” buildings promote resource conservation through energy efficiency, renewable energy, and water conservation features. They take into consideration the environmental impact of the building and minimize waste. Other goals are to create a healthy and comfortable, reduce operation and maintenance costs, and address issues such as historical preservation, access to public transportation and other community infrastructure systems. The entire life cycle of the building and its components is considered, as well as the economic and environmental impact and performance.
Benign – adj. благотворный
Comply – v исполнять (просьбу, приказ)
Conviction – nубеждение, убежденность
Enhance – vусиливать, повышать
Haveanimpact – vоказывать влияние/воздействие
Incentive – n побуждение, стимул
Jeopardize – v угрожать, подвергать опасности
- GRAMMAR FOCUS
1. Yesterday you ran into your friend of yours, Helen. Helen told you a lot of things. Here are some of the things she said to you:
|1. I’m thinking of going to live in France.||2. My father is in the hospital.||3. Sue and Jim are getting married next month.|
|4. I haven’t seen Bill for a while.||5. I’ve been playing tennis a lot lately.||6. Barbara has had a baby.|
|7. I don’t know what Fred is doing.||8. I hardly ever go out these days.||9. I work 14 hours a day.|
|10. I’ll tell Jim I saw you.||11. You can come and stay with me if you are ever in Toronto.||12. Tom had an accident last week, but he wasn’t injured.|
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