Specify human-computer of interaction.

The human–computer interface can be described as the point of communication between the human user and the computer. The flow of information between the human and computer is defined as the loop of interaction. The loop of interaction has several aspects to it, including:

· Visual Based :The visual based human computer inter-action is probably the most widespread area in HCI research.

· Audio Based : The audio based interaction between a computer and a human is another important area of in HCI systems. This area deals with information acquired by different audio signals.

· Task environment: The conditions and goals set upon the user.

· Machine environment: The environment that the computer is connected to, e.g. a laptop in a college student's dorm room.

· Areas of the interface: Non-overlapping areas involve processes of the human and computer not pertaining to their interaction. Meanwhile, the overlapping areas only concern themselves with the processes pertaining to their interaction.

· Input flow: The flow of information that begins in the task environment, when the user has some task that requires using their computer.

· Output: The flow of information that originates in the machine environment.

· Feedback: Loops through the interface that evaluate, moderate, and confirm processes as they pass from the human through the interface to the computer and back.

· Fit: This is the match between the computer design, the user and the task to optimize the human resources needed to accomplish the task.


5. Development stages of the user interface.
Providing a successful user experience requires a balanced approach throughout the development life cycle. To ensure this balance, you must not only focus on implementing the functionality required to complete a task but also on how the task is exposed through the user interface. Remember, the user interface must not only be functional, it must also be usable.

The following outlines the typical phases of the user interface dvelopment process:


· Functional requirements – Determine the initial requirements and goals for the application.

· User analysis – Identify the user scenarios and understand the needs and expectations of users for each scenario.

· Conceptual design – Model the underlying business that the application must support.

· Logical design – Design the process and information flow of the application.

· Physical design – Decide how the logical design will be implemented on specific physical platforms.


· Prototype – Develop paper or interactive screen mockups that focus on the interface and don't include distracting visual design elements.

· Construct – Build the application and prepare for design change requests.


· Usability testing – Test the application with various users and scenarios.

· Accessibility testing – Test the application with accessible technologies and automated test tools.

Design and development of database.

A database management system (DBMS) is system software for creating and managing databases. The DBMS provides users and programmers with a systematic way to create, retrieve, update and manage data.

DBMS makes it possible for end users to create, read, update and delete data in a database. The DBMS essentially serves as an interface between the database and end users or application programs, ensuring that data is consistently organized and remains easily accessible.

The DBMS manages three important things: the data, the database engine that allows data to be accessed, locked and modified -- and the database schema, which defines the database’s logical structure. These three foundational elements help provideconcurrency, security, data integrity and uniform administration procedures.


Specify local and wide area networks.

A computer network is a telecommunication network which allows nodes to share resources. Networking is an important aspect of the modern computer environment, allowing people and companies to communicate and share resources quickly. Connected groups of computer are called networks and there are usually either local area networks (LAN) and wide area network (WAN). Local area network a network that connects a relatively small number of machines in a relatively close geographical area.

Various configurations, called topologies, have been used to administer LANs.

Ring topology A configuration that connects all nodes in a closed loop on which messages travel in one direction

Star topology A configuration that centers around one node to which all others are connected and through which all messages are sent

Bus topology All nodes are connected to a single communication line that carries messages in both directions

Often one particular not on a LAN is set up to serve as a gateway to handle all communication going between that LAN and other networks. 

A wide area networks(WAN) is a telecommunications network or computer network that extends over a large geographical distance.

A WAN is far more geographically dispersed network than a LAN. A WAN can be one large network or a number of linked LANs. Computers connected to a WAN are through public networks such as the telephone systems with LANs.   


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