I. Mark if the following statements: T)   correspond to the contents of the text; F) do not correspond to the contents of the text



1. Brockman was given an X-ray after being shot.

2. Brockman was considered to be a dangerous criminal.

3. Brockman attacked the guard before escaping.

4. When Brockman killed Dodley, it was his first traffic offence.

5. Brockman showed remorse for his killing of Dodley.

7. Brockman could now die as a result of his injuries after being shot.

8. Brockman may have to stay in prison longer because of his escape attempt.

Text # 43 Volunteers and charitable collections.

It is not uncommon in America for a person to belong to some kind of volunteers group. Donating one’s time and services is very much a part of the American way of life. Much of this charitable activity is organized by churches and civic groups around the nation and even encouraged by the government. The helping hand is extended to the poor, the homeless, the underprivileged and the handicapped. Some people to teach youngsters how to read, others open up soap kitchens to feed the homeless and maintain day care centers for children of working mothers. Volunteers are also sought to take care of the handicapped by making reading tapes for the blind and working in orphanages to help children without parents.

It appears that the willingness to give and share without calculating the cast becomes most evident around the holiday season when a spirit of goodwill extends deep into the hearts of all people.

High school students are often encouraged to become volunteers and many school club activities center around volunteer services. Students may work with handicapped children during a summer program, or participate in a club activity which helps to bring meals to senior citizens who are shut-ins. With their sense of idealism students are often eager to donate their spare time. They see such activities as a way of becoming involved in the community and the adult world.

Social actions for them become as important as their academic studies. In a like manner, throughout the year, fund raising drives are conducted by schools and community groups to raise money for a designated worthy cause. Dance marathons, raffles and church bazaars help to rally a group around a needy project to gather funds. They may respond to a recent earthquake in a foreign country, a food somewhere within their own, or another natural disaster which has left people destitute and homeless. They may organize drives to collect food, clothing and medicines to serve an immediate need. Today even the Halloween custom of “trick or treat” has become an occasion to collect money for a charitable cause. This call to assist those less fortunate than themselves arises from the humble origins of the American nation. Those immigrants who were poor and downtrodden became dependent on the kindness of their neighbours to make a new life for themselves.

This desire to help others without calculating the cost can even be worked out within the framework of the Peace Corps. Established back in the 1960s during the Kennedy Administration the Peace Corps remains alive and vibrant even today.

Volunteers work throughout the world in lesser developed countries helping local governments in fields as education, agriculture and animal husbandry. They volunteer by serving as a champion of goodwill both at home and abroad performs a valued service for his country which enriches both his life and those whom he serves.

I. Mark if the following statements: T) correspond to the contents of the text; F) do not correspond to the contents of the text

1. The government is usually responsible for charitable activities.

2. Children who live in orphanages are called the handicapped.

3. Volunteers work productively during the year.

4. A spirit of goodwill encourages people to help.

5. Students’ volunteer work is stimulated by a desire to earn more money. 

6. Children treat charity as a chance to become older.

7. People use various ways to raise money for charity.

8. Volunteers help people change their attitude to life.

9. Volunteers contribute to the development of their country.

10. There are more volunteers in well-developed countries.

Answer the questions.

1. How common is volunteer work in America?

2. What is a soup kitchen?

3. Who would most likely use the services of a day care center?

4. How can volunteers help the blind?

5. What is meant by a "shut-in"?

6. What do schools and community groups do to raise money for a worthy cause?

7. Where did America receive this idea of volunteerism from?

8. When was the Peace Corps established?

9. What is the purpose of the Peace Corps?

10. What is the value of international volunteer work?

 

 

Text # 44

Bathtubs have a very curious history. The bathtub has been in existence for thousands of years. Given its long history, the modern day bathtub is very different from its predecessors.The bathtub originated in ancient Rome as a social gathering place. It did not become the private bathtub, common in American households, until the early 20th century. From its early beginnings in Rome, to cast iron horse troughs, and eventually to the modern day bathtub, it is clear that the bathtub has had quite an evolution.

The Romans are famous for being one of the first civilizations to bathe. Starting in around 500 ВС, Roman citizens were encouraged to bathe daily in one of the many public bathtubs. The Romans used the public baths as a place for social events and as a chance to get to know other people. Their public baths were fairly large and most commonly made of marble. The Romans used lead or bronze pipes to fill the tubs with water. Contrary to popular belief, the habit of bathing continued after the collapse of the Roman Empire, and was common throughout the Middle Ages. Bathing eventually went out of fashion at the beginning of the Renaissance period, only to resurface in the 19th century.

In 1883, the Standard Sanitary Manufacturing Company and the Kohler Company began producing cast-iron tubs. These companies advertised their tubs as horse troughs — large tubs where horses could drink - because this was seen as a more marketable product than a bathtub. However, human bathing in the tubs became popular due to the easy to clean surface of the tub, and the desire to prevent disease.

One cannot explain the history of bathtubs without mentioning the name Henry L. Mencken. He was a journalist who infamouslywrote a false story regardingthe history of bathtubs. In his story, Mencken wrote that the first bathtub in the United States belonged to Adam Thompson. According to the story, Adam Thompson put a bathtub in his house in 1842. At a Christmas party, four guests tried the tub, and news of the bathtub was in the newspaper the next day. Mencken went on to claim that some people were upset about the news of Thompson's bathtub because they believed it to be undemocratic. In addition to these, he fabricatedseveral other details. He wrote that the bathtub was dangerous, and that the Philadelphia Common Council considered disallowing bathing between November 1 and March 15 of that year for health reasons. He even wrote that several cities put very high taxes on water for houses that had bathtubs.

Mencken claimed that he did not expect people to believe his newspaper story. However, his story was reprinted in many newspapers. Shortly afterward, historians also began to spread Mencken's spurious story. Eight years after he wrote the false story, Mencken wrote a second story admitting that everything he had written about bathtubs was false. His story on the bathtub is now considered to be one of the most famous newspaper hoaxes, or tricks, in history. Even today, some of Mencken's false information still gets intermixed with the true history of bathtubs.

Finally, after World War I - and after Mencken's hoax - many new houses were built in the United States with indoor plumbing. Previously, most houses in the United States did not have indoor plumbing. In the early 1920s, only 21% of houses had bathrooms, but by the end of the twentieth century, all new houses had bathrooms.

Today, there are many different types of bathtubs. Luxury bathtubs are made not only for bathing, but also for recreation and relaxation. Some homes have hot-tubs, which are also called spas. The hot tub has a built-in heater that keeps the water hot and jets to create bubbles. Some hot tubs even have built-in sound systems so the bather can listen to music while they relax. There are also tubs made just for the elderly and disabled. These bathtubs allow people to walk into the tub without having to step over the edge.

It is apparentthat, throughout its long history, the bathtub has changed tremendouslysince its birth in ancient Rome.

I. Write (true) or – (false) for each of the statements below:

   1. A predecessor is something that comes before something else.

2. The origin of bathtubs is still unknown.

3. The first bathtubs are said to have been used for personal needs.

4. The Romans enjoyed bathing.

 5. The first Roman bathtubs were made of iron.

 6. Bathing never went out of fashion.

 7. In the 19th century bathtubs were used mainly for animals.

 8. If something is infamous, it is insignificant.

 9. According to Mencken’s story, the first bathtub was put on a special occasion.

 10. Bathtubs were thought to be dangerous for health.

 11. Menken’s story was accurate.

 12. The best synonym for spurious is false.

 13. People stopped believing the story when the journalist announced it to have been a lie.                                                                                                                                                                                                    14. After World War I most houses were built with outdoor plumbing. 

15. A great variety of bathtubs are being made today.

16. There are special tubs for people being physically handicapped.

 

 


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