The barking of the dog didn’t frighten me. I don’t like his sudden comings

*Причастие I всегда обозначает действие, совершаемое лицом или предметом, выраженным существительным, например:

a writing man - пишущий человек,

a dancing girl – танцующая девушка,

She looked at the sleeping child. - Она посмотрела на спящего ребенка.

Герундий же передает назначение предмета, выраженного существительным. Это существительное не может совершить действие, выраженное глагольной ing-формой.

a reading material = a material for reading - материал для чтения

a sleeping car = a car for sleeping - спальный вагон

Ex . 2.1 Определите функцию герундия в данных предложениях:

1. She is proud of Running the company.

2. The main task is Satisfying consumers’ needs.

3. Making plans is necessary in every business.

4. He is afraid of Running risks.

5. Printer is an instrument for Typing papers.

6. Our director likes Subscribing scientific journals.

7. We solved the problem by Writing the letter.

8. Arranging meetings is Sally’s duty.

9. They are interested in Registering the company.

10. Rebecca continued Discussing the matter.

11. Cooking is my hobby.

12. He left without saying a word.

II Grammar forms of verbals

II.I Participle I: grammar forms

It has the forms of tense and voice:

     Active Passive
Indefinite V-ing Being V3
Perfect Having V3 Having been V3




Active Passive
Participle I Perfect Participle planning having planned being planned having been planned


1. The indefinite form shows that the action of Participle I is simultaneous with the action of the finite form of the verb (in the present, past or future).


I see the students hurrying to the university.

The question being asked by me was very difficult.

2. The perfect form of Participle I shows that the action of Participle I precedes the action of the finite form of the verb (in the present, past or future).


Having received an important message he booked the tickets.

Having been examined by a teacher, the student went home.

Ex.2.1.1 Translate the sentences into Russian, find Participles, define their form and function.

Example: The dancing girl is my sibling. – Танцующая девушка моя сестра . Dancing - Participle I, Indefinite Active, Attribute.

1) Having got the largest number of votes the candidate became the winner.

2) The signed document is important for our firm.

3) A professor examining the students asked a lot of questions.

4) I know the professor delivering a lecture now.

5) The expected answer came to us the next day.

6) He sat down, relaxing in front of the fire, his mind being at ease.

7) Going to the cinema I met my friend.

8) The article written by our lecturer is interesting.

10) I read the book mentioned by my friend.

13) Having crossed the road he saw his friend.

14) Having been translated by a specialist the book became very popular.

15) The exams being passed by us were very difficult.

16) Having passed the entrance exams we were admitted to the University.

Ex. 2.1.3-2.1.4 ( Grammarway 4, p. 37, ex.17, Grammarway 3, p. 51, ex.24 )

Replace the finite form of the verb by Participles.

Example: The girl was dancing. She was my sister. – The dancing girl was my sister.

1) The man who stays near Jane is her husband.

2) When he arrived at the airport he registered his luggage.

3) The storm damaged our house. So we had to move to a new one.

4) He had to wait because he was late.

5) I felt shame that drenched me like hot water.

6) When she came home she decided to have a rest.

7) People who interfere in other people’s problems are unpleasant to deal with.

8) He works hard at the university because he wants to have good knowledge.

9) Dinner was over. We went for a stroll.

10) The sea was rough and choppy. I missed my usual swim that day.

Translate using Participles.

1) Потеряв ключи, она не могла попасть домой.

2) Он решил ни с кем не разговаривать, т.к. был раздражен.

3) Она сидела в большом плетеном кресле. Ее глаза казались безжизненными.

4) Книга, написанная известным писателем, стала очень популярной.

5) Т.к. на улице было солнечно, мы решили отдохнуть в саду.

6) Конференция, проходящая в университете, посвящена важным образовательным проблемам.

7) Сигарета, оставленная на столе, стала причиной пожара.

8) Когда его спросил о новой работе, он ответил, что она ему очень нравится.

9) Упавшее дерево преградило нам дорогу.

10) Закончив завтрак, он начал просматривать утренние газеты.          

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